OMIA:000145-9615 : Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)

In other species: domestic cat

Categories: Respiratory system phene

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: no

Species-specific name: BOAS

Species-specific description: Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS) is a condition where the animal's ability to breathe, as well as it's ability to engage in normal behaviours is impacted negatively due to brachycephaly (the shape of a skull is shorter than typical for its species). In dogs, narrowed nostrils (stenotic nares), elongated soft palate, enlarged tongue, and reduced diameter of the windpipe have been associated with the condition (Ekenstedt et al., 2023). Elongated soft palates have been reported in non-brachycephalic dogs (Himel et al., 2023).

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2023). OMIA:000145-9615: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2024 Åsbjer, E., Hedhammar, Å., Engdahl, K. :
Awareness, experiences, and opinions by owners, breeders, show judges, and veterinarians on canine Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS). Canine Med Genet 11:3, 2024. Pubmed reference: 38459530. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-024-00137-4.
Morel, E., Malineau, L., Venet, C., Gaillard, V., Péron, F. :
Prioritization of appearance over health and temperament is detrimental to the welfare of purebred dogs and cats. Animals (Basel) 14:1003, 2024. Pubmed reference: 38612242. DOI: 10.3390/ani14071003.
Niinikoski, I., Himanen, S.L., Tenhunen, M., Aromaa, M., Lilja-Maula, L., Rajamäki, M.M. :
Evaluation of risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 38:1135-1145, 2024. Pubmed reference: 38358051. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.17019.
Schroers, M., Goossens, J., Zablotski, Y., Meyer-Lindenberg, A. :
Fur cortisol in French Bulldogs with different manifestations of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. Animals (Basel) 14:1060, 2024. Pubmed reference: 38612298. DOI: 10.3390/ani14071060.
Sharp, C.A.T., Liu, N.C., Guy, A., Ladlow, J.F. :
The mobility of the brachycephalic canine nostril in relation to the degree of nostril stenosis. Vet J 304:106085, 2024. Pubmed reference: 38401643. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2024.106085.
Wallace, M.L. :
Surgical management of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome: An update on options and outcomes. Vet Surg , 2024. Pubmed reference: 38952039. DOI: 10.1111/vsu.14131.
2023 Bagardi, M., Locatelli, C., Ghilardi, S., Creta, F., Pasquinelli, B., Brambilla, P.G., Romussi, S. :
Does the Cambridge classification alone predict the possibility to perform echocardiographic examination in lateral recumbency in dogs affected by brachycephalic obstructive airways syndrome? PLoS One 18:e0286914, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37285377. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0286914.
Brložnik, M., Nemec Svete, A., Erjavec, V., Domanjko Petrič, A. :
Echocardiographic parameters in French Bulldogs, Pugs and Boston Terriers with brachycephalic obstructive airways syndrome. BMC Vet Res 19:49, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36793024. DOI: 10.1186/s12917-023-03600-9.
Brložnik, M., Nemec Svete, A., Erjavec, V., Domanjko Petrič, A. :
Echocardiographic analysis of dogs before and after surgical treatment of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. Front Vet Sci 10:1148288, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37215476. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2023.1148288.
di Virgilio, F., Guelette, V., Prata, D., Boulouha, L., Santos, M., Belluzzi, E., Caraty, J., Bongartz, A., Deneuche, A. :
Comparative histological analysis of the alae nasi in French bulldogs with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome and unaffected non-brachycephalic dogs. Vet Rec 193:e3058, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37335600. DOI: 10.1002/vetr.3058.
Dimopoulou, M., Engdahl, K., Ladlow, J., Andersson, G., Hedhammar, Å., Skiöldebrand, E., Ljungvall, I. :
The epidemiology of upper respiratory tract disorders in a population of insured Swedish dogs (2011-2014), and its association to brachycephaly. Sci Rep 13:8765, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37253809. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-35466-0.
Erjavec, V., Svete, A.N. :
Thrombocytosis in brachycephalic dogs with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. Vet Med (Praha) 68:57-61, 2023. Pubmed reference: 38332764. DOI: 10.17221/23/2021-VETMED.
Foster, E., West, N., Butterfield, S., Rusbridge, C., Crawford, A. :
Respiratory compromise in French bulldogs presented with intervertebral disc extrusion. Vet Rec 193:e3603, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37938865. DOI: 10.1002/vetr.3603.
Gallman, J., Lee-Fowler, T., Clark-Price, S., Grobman, M. :
Evaluation of infrared thermography and 6-minute walk tests to assess airflow limitation, impaired thermoregulation, and exercise intolerance in dogs with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. PLoS One 18:e0283807, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37000798. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0283807.
Gray, A. :
Call for BOAS tests for all breeding brachys. Vet Rec 193:346, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37921326. DOI: 10.1002/vetr.3625.
Himel, C.J., Linden, D.S., Grimes, J.A., Thieman Mankin, K.M., Coggeshall, J.D., Coggeshall, W.S., Matz, B.M. :
Staphylectomy in nonbrachycephalic dogs: A retrospective study of 27 cases. Can Vet J 64:765-772, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37529396.
McNamara, C. :
Testing for health in brachy dogs. Vet Rec 192:338, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37084190. DOI: 10.1002/vetr.2980.
Pérez López, P., Café Marçal, V., Leece, E.A., Hattersley, R.D. :
Assessment of the number of mast cells in the soft palate of dogs affected by brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. Vet Rec 193:e2833, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36951103. DOI: 10.1002/vetr.2833.
Sebbag, L., Sanchez, R.F. :
The pandemic of ocular surface disease in brachycephalic dogs: The brachycephalic ocular syndrome. Vet Ophthalmol 26 Suppl 1:31-46, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36585820. DOI: 10.1111/vop.13054.
Song, A., Phillips, H., Oliveira, C.R., McCoy, A.M. :
CT volumetric analysis permits comparison of tongue size and tongue fat in different canine brachycephalic and mesaticephalic breeds. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 64:429-438, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36787184. DOI: 10.1111/vru.13221.
Türkcü, J.D., Meller, S., Wiegel, P.S., Nolte, I., Volk, H.A. :
Evaluation of the submaximal treadmill-based fitness test in six brachycephalic breeds-A follow-up study. Animals (Basel) 13:3413, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37958168. DOI: 10.3390/ani13213413.
Žgank, Ž., Nemec Svete, A., Lenasi, H., Vodičar, J., Erjavec, V. :
The effect of the surgical treatment of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome on the thermoregulatory response to exercise in French bulldogs: a pilot study. Front Vet Sci 10:1229687, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37901097. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2023.1229687.
Zong, S., Du, P., Li, H., Wang, M., Xiao, H. :
Advances in animal models of obstructive sleep apnea. Front Med (Lausanne) 10:988752, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36824607. DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2023.988752.
2022 Conte, A., Berlato, D., Rasotto, R., Bass, J., Bussadori, R., Nicoli, S., Murgia, D. :
Comparison of harmonic shears, diode laser, and scissor cutting and suturing for caudal palatoplasty in dogs with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. Vet J 280:105802, 2022. Pubmed reference: 35151883. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2022.105802.
Kenny, D.D., Freemantle, R., Jeffery, A., Tivers, M.S. :
Impact of an educational intervention on public perception of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in brachycephalic dogs. Vet Rec 190:e1430, 2022. Pubmed reference: 35182434. DOI: 10.1002/vetr.1430.
Mitze, S., Barrs, V.R., Beatty, J.A., Hobi, S., Bęczkowski, P.M. :
Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome: much more than a surgical problem. Vet Q 42:213-223, 2022. Pubmed reference: 36342210. DOI: 10.1080/01652176.2022.2145621.
2021 Geiger, M., Schoenebeck, J.J., Schneider, R.A., Schmidt, M.J., Fischer, M.S., Sánchez-Villagra, M.R. :
Exceptional changes in skeletal anatomy under domestication: The case of brachycephaly. Integr Org Biol 3:obab023, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34409262. DOI: 10.1093/iob/obab023.
Mondino, A., Delucchi, L., Moeser, A., Cerdá-González, S., Vanini, G. :
Sleep disorders in dogs: A pathophysiological and clinical review. Top Companion Anim Med 43:100516, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33556640. DOI: 10.1016/j.tcam.2021.100516.
Niskanen, J.E., Reunanen, V., Salonen, M., Bannasch, D., Lappalainen, A.K., Lohi, H., Hytönen, M.K. :
Canine DVL2 variant contributes to brachycephalic phenotype and caudal vertebral anomalies. Hum Genet 140:1535-1545, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33599851. DOI: 10.1007/s00439-021-02261-8.
O'Neill, D.G., Packer, R.M.A., Francis, P., Church, D.B., Brodbelt, D.C., Pegram, C. :
French Bulldogs differ to other dogs in the UK in propensity for many common disorders: a VetCompass study. Canine Med Genet 8:13, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34911586. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-021-00112-3.
2020 Ekenstedt, K.J., Crosse, K.R., Risselada, M. :
Canine brachycephaly: anatomy, pathology, genetics and welfare. J Comp Pathol 176:109-115, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32359622. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2020.02.008.
Stordalen, M.B., Silveira, F., Fenner, J.V.H., Demetriou, J.L. :
Outcome of temporary tracheostomy tube-placement following surgery for brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in 42 dogs. J Small Anim Pract 61:292-299, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32175595. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.13127.
2019 Ravn-Mølby, E.M., Sindahl, L., Nielsen, S.S., Bruun, C.S., Sandøe, P., Fredholm, M. :
Breeding French bulldogs so that they breathe well-A long way to go. PLoS One 14:e0226280, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31841527. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226280.
Riggs, J., Liu, N.C., Sutton, D.R., Sargan, D., Ladlow, J.F. :
Validation of exercise testing and laryngeal auscultation for grading brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in pugs, French bulldogs, and English bulldogs by using whole-body barometric plethysmography. Vet Surg 48:488-496, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30666670. DOI: 10.1111/vsu.13159.
2018 Fawcett, A., Barrs, V., Awad, M., Child, G., Brunel, L., Mooney, E., Martinez-Taboada, F., McDonald, B., McGreevy, P. :
Consequences and Management of Canine Brachycephaly in Veterinary Practice: Perspectives from Australian Veterinarians and Veterinary Specialists. Animals (Basel) 9:3, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30577619. DOI: 10.3390/ani9010003.
Ladlow, J., Liu, N.C., Kalmar, L., Sargan, D. :
Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. Vet Rec 182:375-378, 2018. Pubmed reference: 29599258. DOI: 10.1136/vr.k1403.
2017 Lilja-Maula, L., Lappalainen, A.K., Hyytiäinen, H.K., Kuusela, E., Kaimio, M., Schildt, K., Mölsä, S., Morelius, M., Rajamäki, M.M. :
Comparison of submaximal exercise test results and severity of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in English bulldogs. Vet J 219:22-26, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28093105. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2016.11.019.
Liu, N.C., Troconis, E.L., Kalmar, L., Price, D.J., Wright, H.E., Adams, V.J., Sargan, D.R., Ladlow, J.F. :
Conformational risk factors of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) in pugs, French bulldogs, and bulldogs. PLoS One 12:e0181928, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28763490. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181928.
2016 Heidenreich, D., Gradner, G., Kneissl, S., Dupré, G. :
Nasopharyngeal Dimensions From Computed Tomography of Pugs and French Bulldogs With Brachycephalic Airway Syndrome. Vet Surg 45:83-90, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26731598. DOI: 10.1111/vsu.12418.
Liu, N.C., Adams, V.J., Kalmar, L., Ladlow, J.F., Sargan, D.R. :
Whole-body barometric plethysmography characterizes upper airway obstruction in 3 brachycephalic breeds of dogs. J Vet Intern Med 30:853-65, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27159898. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.13933.
Oechtering, G.U., Pohl, S., Schlueter, C., Schuenemann, R. :
A Novel Approach to Brachycephalic Syndrome. 2. Laser-Assisted Turbinectomy (LATE). Vet Surg 45:173-81, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26790634. DOI: 10.1111/vsu.12447.
Oechtering, G.U., Pohl, S., Schlueter, C., Lippert, J.P., Alef, M., Kiefer, I., Ludewig, E., Schuenemann, R. :
A Novel Approach to Brachycephalic Syndrome. 1. Evaluation of Anatomical Intranasal Airway Obstruction. Vet Surg 45:165-72, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26790550. DOI: 10.1111/vsu.12446.
Shaver, S.L., Barbur, L.A., Jimenez, D.A., Brainard, B.M., Cornell, K.K., Radlinsky, M.G., Schmiedt, C.W. :
Evaluation of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Anesthetized Dogs with Brachycephalic Syndrome. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 53:24-31, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27841676. DOI: 10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6281.
2015 Haimel, G., Dupré, G. :
Brachycephalic airway syndrome: a comparative study between pugs and French bulldogs. J Small Anim Pract 56:714-9, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26563910. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12408.
Kaye, B.M., Boroffka, S.A., Haagsman, A.N., Ter Haar, G. :
Computed tomographic, radiographic, and endoscopic tracheal dimensions in English bulldogs with grade 1 clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome Vet Radiol Ultrasound 56:609-16, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26202379. DOI: 10.1111/vru.12277.
Liu, N.C., Sargan, D.R., Adams, V.J., Ladlow, J.F. :
Characterisation of Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome in French Bulldogs Using Whole-Body Barometric Plethysmography. PLoS One 10:e0130741, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26079684. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130741.
O'Neill, D.G., Jackson, C., Guy, J.H., Church, D.B., McGreevy, P.D., Thomson, P.C., Brodbelt, D.C. :
Epidemiological associations between brachycephaly and upper respiratory tract disorders in dogs attending veterinary practices in England. Canine Genet Epidemiol 2:10, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26401338. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-015-0023-8.
2013 Rancan, L., Romussi, S., Garcia, P., Albertini, M., Vara, E., Sánchez de la Muela, M. :
Assessment of circulating concentrations of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide in dogs with brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome. Am J Vet Res 74:155-60, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23270361. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.74.1.155.
Sabino, C.V., Holowaychuk, M., Bateman, S. :
Management of acute respiratory distress syndrome in a French Bulldog using airway pressure release ventilation. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 23:447-54, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23855595. DOI: 10.1111/vec.12071.
2012 Lodato, D.L., Hedlund, C.S. :
Brachycephalic airway syndrome: pathophysiology and diagnosis. Compend Contin Educ Vet 34:E3, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22847322.
Lodato, D.L., Hedlund, C.S. :
Brachycephalic airway syndrome: management. Compend Contin Educ Vet 34:E4, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22935992.
Packer, R.M.A., Hendricks, A., Burn, C.C. :
Do dog owners perceive the clinical signs related to conformational inherited disorders as 'normal' for the breed? A potential constraint to improving canine welfare. Animal Welfare 21(Suppl. 1):81-93, 2012.
Planellas, M., Cuenca, R., Tabar, M.D., Bertolani, C., Poncet, C., Closa, J.M., Lorente, J., Cerón, J.J., Pastor, J. :
Evaluation of C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and cardiac troponin 1 levels in brachycephalic dogs with upper airway obstructive syndrome. BMC Vet Res 8:152, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22937913. DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-152.
White, R.N. :
Surgical management of laryngeal collapse associated with brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome in dogs. J Small Anim Pract 53:44-50, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22122300. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2011.01156.x.
2011 Pichetto, M., Arrighi, S., Roccabianca, P., Romussi, S. :
The anatomy of the dog soft palate. II. Histological evaluation of the caudal soft palate in brachycephalic breeds with grade I brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. Anat Rec (Hoboken) 294:1267-72, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21634020. DOI: 10.1002/ar.21417.
Senn, D., Sigrist, N., Forterre, F., Howard, J., Spreng, D. :
Retrospective evaluation of postoperative nasotracheal tubes for oxygen supplementation in dogs following surgery for brachycephalic syndrome: 36 cases (2003-2007). J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 21:261-7, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21631712. DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-4431.2011.00612.x.
Trappler, M., Moore, K. :
Canine brachycephalic airway syndrome: surgical management. Compend Contin Educ Vet 33:E1-7; quiz E8, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21870354.
Trappler, M., Moore, K. :
Canine brachycephalic airway syndrome: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and nonsurgical management. Compend Contin Educ Vet 33:E1-4; quiz E5, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21870353.
2010 Bernaerts, F., Talavera, J., Leemans, J., Hamaide, A., Claeys, S., Kirschvink, N., Clercx, C. :
Description of original endoscopic findings and respiratory functional assessment using barometric whole-body plethysmography in dogs suffering from brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome. Vet J 183:95-102, 2010. Pubmed reference: 18952471. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.09.009.
Dunié-Mérigot, A., Bouvy, B., Poncet, C. :
Comparative use of CO₂ laser, diode laser and monopolar electrocautery for resection of the soft palate in dogs with brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. Vet Rec 167:700-4, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21257486. DOI: 10.1136/vr.c5107.
Fasanella, FJ., Shivley, JM., Wardlaw, JL., Givaruangsawat, S. :
Brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome in dogs: 90 cases (1991-2008). J Am Vet Med Assoc 237:1048-51, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21034343. DOI: 10.2460/javma.237.9.1048.
2009 Njikam, I.M., Huault, M., Pirson, V., Detilleux, J. :
The Influence of Phylogenic Origin on the Occurrence of Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome in a Large Retrospective Study. International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine 7(3):138-143, 2009.
Portier, K., Viguier, E. :
Fatal tracheal collapse in a dog with brachycephalic syndrome during gastric endoscopic examination. Vet Rec 165:412-4, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19801596. DOI: 10.1136/vr.165.14.412.
2007 Riecks, T.W., Birchard, S.J., Stephens, J.A. :
Surgical correction of brachycephalic syndrome in dogs: 62 cases (1991-2004). J Am Vet Med Assoc 230:1324-8, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17472557. DOI: 10.2460/javma.230.9.1324.
2006 Poncet, C.M., Dupre, G.P., Freiche, V.G., Bouvy, B.M. :
Long-term results of upper respiratory syndrome surgery and gastrointestinal tract medical treatment in 51 brachycephalic dogs. J Small Anim Pract 47:137-42, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16512845. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2006.00057.x.
Torrez, C.V., Hunt, G.B. :
Results of surgical correction of abnormalities associated with brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome in dogs in Australia. J Small Anim Pract 47:150-4, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16512847. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2006.00059.x.
1997 Lorinson, D., Bright, R.M., White, R.A.S. :
Brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome - a review of 118 cases Canine Practice 22:18-21, 1997.
1992 Hendricks, JC. :
Brachycephalic airway syndrome. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 22:1145-53, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1523786.
1991 Wykes, PM. :
Brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. Probl Vet Med 3:188-97, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1802247.
1989 Harvey, C.E. :
Inherited and congenital airway conditions in dogs and cats Journal of Small Animal Practice 30:184-187, 1989.
1985 Aron, D.N., Crowe, D.T. :
Upper airway obstruction. General principles and selected conditions in the dog and cat. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 15:891-917, 1985. Pubmed reference: 2416110. DOI: 10.1016/s0195-5616(85)50101-1.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 18 Apr 2023
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 04 Aug 2023