OMIA 000364-9685 : Factor XII deficiency in Felis catus

In other species: dog , killer whale , bottlenosed dolphin

Possibly relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s)s (MIM numbers): 234000 (trait) , 610619 (gene)

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Autosomal Recessive

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2015

Species-specific description: FXII-deficiency in cats is characterised by reduced FXII activity and increased APTT [activated partial thromboplastin time] values, but the condition does not appear to be associated with increased risk of bleeding (Maruyama et al., 2019).

Inheritance: Kier et al. (1980) provided evidence of autosomal recessive inheritance and reported the establishment of a colony at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, derived from a gift of breeding animals from a colony established at Kansas University by Dr Bresnahan (Bender et al., 2015).

Molecular basis: Bender et al. (2015) characterised the obvious functional and comparative candidate gene for this disorder, namely the gene for factor XII, in cats: "Fourteen exons ranging in size from 57 to 222 base pairs were confirmed spanning 8 Kb on chromosome A1. The 1828–base pair feline FXII messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence contains an open reading frame that encodes a protein of 609 amino acids with high homology to human FXII protein." Subsequent sequencing in normal and affected cats identified a "single base deletion in exon 11 of the FXII coding gene in our colony of cats results in deficient FXII activity. Translation of the mRNA transcript shows a frame shift at L441 (C441fsX119) resulting in a nonsense mutation and a premature stop codon with a predicted 560–amino acid protein. The mutant FXII protein is truncated in the 3′ proteolytic light chain region of the C-terminus, explaining its loss of enzymatic activity."

By sequencing the most likely candidate gene in 6 Japanese domestic short-hair cats (2 cats with severely reduced FXII activity (7.1 % and 9.3 %, respectively) and 4 cats with moderately reduced FXII activity (range 36.0 to 46.3 %)), Maruyama et al. (2017) identified a new likely causal variant in exon 13 of the F12 gene: "Cats with severely reduced FXII activity were homozygous" for a missense mutation c.1631G>C, p.G544A; "Cats with moderately reduced FXII activity were heterozygous for this mutation". These authors also reported that "Expression studies revealed reduced secretion of p.G544A mutant FXII protein from transfected HEK293 cells compared with wild type FXII."

Maruyama et al. (2019) “ identified a novel F12 sequence variant (c.1549C>T) predicted to alter FXII expression. This nonsense mutation, located in exon 13, generated a premature stop codon in the FXII protein's catalytic domain (p.Q517Ter). .. . [The authors] did not perform in vitro FXII expression studies of the novel exon 13 nonsense mutation (c.1549C>T; p.Q517Ter), the cat whose genotype included this mutation, in addition to single copies of the common mutations, had a severe FXII-deficient phenotype.”

Clinical features: Maruyama et al. (2019) characterized the phenotypic features of FXII deficient client owned-cats: “The study set of 26 cats included 14 females … and 12 males … , with an age range of 0.5 to 16 years … . … FXII activities … ranged from 0.5 to 14% … . … The APTT [activated partial thromboplastin time] values for all cats were prolonged beyond the laboratory's cutoff value for healthy cats of 19.0 s. … Client history questionnaires were completed for 25 of the 26 cats. No cats had experienced spontaneous, non-traumatic hemorrhage, or abnormal bleeding when deciduous teeth were shed. Twenty cats … had undergone ovariohysterectomy or castration procedures and none experienced hemorrhagic complications. … The lack of abnormal bleeding, even among severely FXII deficient cats, combined with the high prevalence of the trait, supports the non-pathologic nature of inactivating F12 mutations in this species.”

Prevalence: Maruyama et al. (2019) investigated the demographics of FXII deficiency in client owned-cats: “Domestic cats were the most common breed listed across all submissions, however 14% of all FXII-deficient cats were described as non-domestic cats. In addition to “mixed breed” cats (n = 9), the pure breeds listed included Siamese (n = 17), Persian (n = 9), Maine coon (n = 5), Ragdoll (n = 5) Himalayan (n = 4), Bengal (n = 2), Siberian (n = 2), Turkish Van (n = 2), Russian blue (n = 2), and 1 each of the following breeds: Manx, Munchkin, Norwegian forest, and Oriental shorthair.”

Breeds: Bengal, Domestic Shorthair, Himalayan, Maine Coon, Manx, Munchkin, Norwegian Forest, Oriental shorthair, Persian, Ragdoll, Russian Blue, Siamese, Siberian, Turkish Van.

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
F12 coagulation factor XII (Hageman factor) Felis catus A1 NC_058368.1 (172783544..172796093) F12 Homologene, Ensembl, NCBI gene


By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective. Readers can re-sort on any column by clicking on the column header. Click it again to sort in a descending order. To create a multiple-field sort, hold down Shift while clicking on the second, third etc relevant column headers.

WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Inferred EVA rsID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
533 Factor XII deficiency F12 deletion, small (<=20) Naturally occurring variant Felis_catus_9.0 A1 g.175381114del c.1321del p.(L441Cfs*119) NM_001168212.2; NP_001161684.2; published as c.1321delC 2015 24793828 Genomic position in Felis_catus_9.0 provided by Leslie Lyons and Reuben Buckley.
147 Domestic Shorthair Factor XII deficiency F12 missense Naturally occurring variant Felis_catus_9.0 A1 g.175382065G>C c.1631G>C p.(G544A) NM_001168212.2; NP_001161684.2 2017 28392508 Genomic position in Felis_catus_9.0 provided by Leslie Lyons and Reuben Buckley.


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.
2021 Rodney, A.R., Buckley, R.M., Fulton, R.S., Fronick, C., Richmond, T., Helps, C.R., Pantke, P., Trent, D.J., Vernau, K.M., Munday, J.S., Lewin, A.C., Middleton, R., Lyons, L.A., Warren, W.C. :
A domestic cat whole exome sequencing resource for trait discovery. Sci Rep 11:7159, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33785770. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-86200-7.
2019 Maruyama, H., Brooks, M.B., Stablein, A., Frye, A., Maruyama, H., Brooks, M.B., Stablein, A., Frye, A. :
Factor XII deficiency is common in domestic cats and associated with two high frequency F12 mutations. Gene 706:6-12, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31022435. DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2019.04.053.
2017 Maruyama, H., Hosoe, H., Nagamatsu, K., Kano, R., Kamata, H. :
A novel missense mutation in the factor XII gene in a litter of cats with factor XII deficiency. J Vet Med Sci 79:822-826, 2017. Pubmed reference: 28392508. DOI: 10.1292/jvms.16-0602.
2015 Bender, D.E., Kloos, M.T., Pontius, J.U., Hinsdale, M.E., Bellinger, D.A. :
Molecular characterization of cat factor XII gene and identification of a mutation causing factor XII deficiency in a domestic shorthair cat colony. Vet Pathol 52:312-20, 2015. Pubmed reference: 24793828. DOI: 10.1177/0300985814532821.
2006 Brooks, M., Dewilde, L. :
Feline factor XII deficiency. Compend. Contin. Educ. Pract. Vet. 28:148-156, 2006.
1990 Kier, A.B., Mcdonnell, J.J., Stern, A., Ratnoff, O.D. :
The Arthus reaction in cats deficient in Hageman factor (Factor-XII) Journal of Comparative Pathology 102:33-47, 1990. Pubmed reference: 2138171.
1988 Fogh, J.M., Fogh, I.T. :
Inherited coagulation disorders. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 18:231-43, 1988. Pubmed reference: 3282382.
Parker, M.T., Collier, L.L., Kier, A.B., Johnson, G.S. :
Oral mucosa bleeding times of normal cats and cats with Chediak-Higashi syndrome or Hageman trait (Factor XII Deficiency). Vet Clin Pathol 17:9-12, 1988. Pubmed reference: 15162339.
1980 Kier, A.B., Bresnahan, J.F., White, F.J., Wagner, J.E. :
The inheritance pattern of factor XII (Hageman) deficiency in domestic cats. Can J Comp Med 44:309-14, 1980. Pubmed reference: 7427778.
1977 Green, R.A., White, F. :
Feline factor XII (Hageman) deficiency. Am J Vet Res 38:893-5, 1977. Pubmed reference: 879587.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 07 May 2014
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 13 Apr 2017
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 17 Sep 2021
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 17 Sep 2022