OMIA:000508-9615 : Hyperparathyroidism in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)

In other species: domestic cat , horse , mule

Categories: Endocrine / exocrine gland phene (incl mammary gland)

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 145000 (trait) , 145001 (trait) , 239199 (trait) , 239200 (trait) , 256120 (trait) , 600166 (trait)

Links to relevant human diseases in MONDO:

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Key variant is published: no

Cross-species summary: Hyperfunction of the parathyroid glands resulting in the overproduction of parathyroid hormone. It may be primary or secondary; primary hyperparathyroidism is caused by parathyroid adenoma, parathyroid hyperplasia, parathyroid carcinoma, and multiple endocrine neoplasia. It is associated with hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. ... Secondary hyperparathyroidism is caused by the chronic stimulation of the parathyroid glands in patients with chronic renal failure, rickets, and malabsorption syndromes. [NCIT:C48259]

Species-specific name: This entry includes information about primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT)

Species-specific description: This disorder occurs in many different forms, many of which are not inherited. Goldstein et al. (2008) report that the majority of cases of primary hyperparathyroidism in dogs are due to adenoma, and that malignant parathyroid carcinoma are considered rare. Breed predispositions have been reported and a neonatal form of hyperparathyroidism with a suspected autosomal recessive mode of inheritance has been reported in German Shepherd puppies (Thompson et al., 1984) and inherited hyperparathyroidism with adult onset and a suspected autosomal dominant mode of inheritance has been reported in Keeshond (Goldstein et al., 2007). A non-published DNA test is offered for Keeshond.

Inheritance: Genetic forms of primary hyperparathyroidism include a suspected recessive form with early onset in German Shepherd puppies (Thompson et al., 1984) and an autosomal dominant form with adult onset in Keeshond (Goldstein et al., 2007).

Molecular basis: A DNA test for the disorder in Keeshond is included in the OFA's list at, which directs enquiries to the Animal Health Diagnostic Center at Cornell University: The molecular basis has not been published (American Kennel Club Canine Health Foundation, 2021).

Clinical features: Across genetic and non-genetic forms of the disease, the most common clinical signs associated with canine hyperparathyroidism include polyuria (Thompson et al., 1984; Gear et al.. 2005; Sakals et al., 2010; Jores and Kessler, 2011), polydipsia (Thompson et al., 1984; Gear et al., 2005; Sakals et al., 2010; Jores and Kessler, 2011) stiff gait (Jores and Kessler, 2011) and weakness (Thompson et al., 1984; Sakals et al., 2010). Less common clinical signs include anorexia (Sakals et al., 2010), stunted growth (Thompson et al., 1984) and reduced activity (Jores and Kessler, 2011). Changes in haematology and biochemistry have been noted, with many published case reports indicating mild to extensive hypercalcaemia (Thompson et al., 1984; Sakals et al., 2010; Jores and Kessler, 2011), hypophosphatemia (Thompson et al., 1984; Jores and Kessler, 2011) and elevated serum parathyroid hormone (Sakals et al., 2010; Jores and Kessler, 2011) to be the key changes associated with canine hyperparathyroidism. IT thanks DVM student Stephanie Shields, who provided the basis of this contribution in May 2023.

Pathology: Reported pathological findings are focused on the appearance of neoplastic lesions within the parathyroid gland/s, with the key diagnostic feature being nodular enlargement of the parathyroid gland (Gear et al., 2005). A study relating to a genetic form of the disease with early onset also noted reduced bone density (Thompson et al., 1984) using radiographs, likely as a result of calcium mobilisation from bones due to elevated serum parathyroid hormone in individuals with hyperparathyroidism. IT thanks DVM student Stephanie Shields, who provided the basis of this contribution in May 2023.

Breeds: German Shepherd Dog (Dog) (VBO_0200577), Keeshond (Dog) (VBO_0200759).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. (If a likely causal variant has been documented for the phene, see the variant table breeds in which the variant has been reported).

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2023). OMIA:000508-9615: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Vose, J., Jaffey, J., Akin, C., Spitzer, A., DeCicco, B., Bassiouny, E., LaClair, A., Petroff, B., Brudvig, J., Cridge, H. :
Serum gastrin concentrations in dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism. J Vet Intern Med , 2023. Pubmed reference: 38031928. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.16940.
2021 American Kennel Club Canine Health Foundation, Inc; c2018. :
631: The genome wide search for the genetic cause of primary hyperparathyroidism in the Keeshond. , 2021.
2020 Thompson, D., Skelly, B. :
Prevalence of canine primary hyperparathyroidism recurrence in Keeshond and non-Keeshond dogs after curative parathyroidectomy. Vet Rec 187:e93, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32690764. DOI: 10.1136/vr.105563.
2016 Bucy, D., Pollard, R., Nelson, R. :
Analysis of factors affecting outcome of ultrasound-guided radiofrequency heat ablation for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound , 2016. Pubmed reference: 27885739. DOI: 10.1111/vru.12451.
2011 Jores, K., Kessler, M. :
[Primary hyperparathyroidism in the dog. Diagnosis, therapy and postoperative management in 19 dogs]. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 39:389-96, 2011. Pubmed reference: 22167164.
2010 Sakals, SA., Gillick, MS., Kerr, ME., Boston, SE. :
Diagnosing the etiology of hypercalcemia in a dog: a case of primary hyperparathyroidism. Vet Pathol 47:579-81, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20472810. DOI: 10.1177/0300985809359604.
2009 Benchekroun, G., Desmyter, A., Hidalgo, A., Boulouis, HJ., Gomes, E., Garnier, F., Escoffier, L., Poujol, L., de Fornel-Thibaud, P., Maurey, C., Rosenberg, D. :
Primary hyperparathyroidism and monoclonal gammopathy in a dog. J Vet Intern Med 23:211-4, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19175743. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0223.x.
Ham, K., Greenfield, CL., Barger, A., Schaeffer, D., Ehrhart, EJ., Pinkerton, M., Valli, VE. :
Validation of a rapid parathyroid hormone assay and intraoperative measurement of parathyroid hormone in dogs with benign naturally occurring primary hyperparathyroidism. Vet Surg 38:122-32, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19152627. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2008.00457.x.
Schaefer, C., Goldstein, R.E. :
Canine primary hyperparathyroidism. Compend Contin Educ Vet 31:382-89, quiz 390, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19866445.
2007 Bonczynski, J. :
Primary hyperparathyroidism in dogs and cats. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 22:70-4, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17591292. DOI: 10.1053/j.ctsap.2007.03.006.
Goldstein, RE., Atwater, DZ., Cazolli, DM., Goldstein, O., Wade, CM., Lindblad-Toh, K. :
Inheritance, mode of inheritance, and candidate genes for primary hyperparathyroidism in Keeshonden. J Vet Intern Med 21:199-203, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17338170.
Skelly, B.J., Franklin, R.J. :
Mutations in genes causing human familial isolated hyperparathyroidism do not account for hyperparathyroidism in Keeshond dogs. Vet J 174:652-4, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17158076. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.10.018.
2005 Chuzel, T., Bublot, I., Mai, W. :
What is your diagnosis? Primary hyperparathyroidism. J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:203-4, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15706967.
Gear, RN., Neiger, R., Skelly, BJ., Herrtage, ME. :
Primary hyperparathyroidism in 29 dogs: diagnosis, treatment, outcome and associated renal failure. J Small Anim Pract 46:10-6, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15682734.
2001 Pollard, R.E., Long, C.D., Nelson, R.W., Hornof, W.J., Feldman, E.C. :
Percutaneous ultrasonographically guided radiofrequency heat ablation for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism in dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 218:1106-1110, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11318360.
1999 Long, C.D., Goldstein, R.E., Hornof, W.J., Feldman, E.C., Nyland, T.G. :
Percutaneous ultrasound-guided chemical parathyroid ablation for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism in dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 215:217-221, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10416475.
Reusch, C., Glaus, T., Hoerauf, A., Grundmann, S., Unterer, S. :
Primary hyperparathyreodism in dogs - the significance of parathyroidea sonography in 5 cases [German] Kleintierpraxis 44:317-+, 1999.
1996 Brain, P.H., Lamb, W.A., Black, A.P. :
Primary hyperparathyroidism in a dog Australian Veterinary Practitioner 26:13-17, 1996.
Matwichuk, C.L., Taylor, S.M., Wilkinson, A.A., Dudzic, E.M., Matte, G.G., Outerbridge, C.A., Schmon, C.L., Ihle, S.L. :
Use of technetium tc 99M sestamibi for detection of a parathyroid adenoma in a dog with primary hyperparathyroidism Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 209:1733 ff., 1996.
1984 Thompson, KG., Jones, LP., Smylie, WA., Quick, CB., Segre, GV., Meuten, DJ., Petrites-Murphy, MB. :
Primary hyperparathyroidism in German shepherd dogs: a disorder of probable genetic origin. Vet Pathol 21:370-6, 1984. Pubmed reference: 6464298.
1979 Carrillo, JM., Burk, RL., Bode, C. :
Primary hyperparathyroidism in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 174:67-71, 1979. Pubmed reference: 457573.
1976 Legendre, AM., Merkley, DF., Carrig, CB., Krehbiel, JD. :
Primary hyperparathyroidism in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 168:694-6, 1976. Pubmed reference: 1262247.
1974 Wilson, JW., Harris, SG., Moore, WD., Leipold, HW. :
Primary hyperparathyroidism in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 164:942-6, 1974. Pubmed reference: 4132940.
1968 Goulden, BE., MacKenzie, CP. :
Suspected primary hyperparathyroidism in the dog. N Z Vet J 16:131-40, 1968. Pubmed reference: 5249479. DOI: 10.1080/00480169.1968.33760.
1965 Pearson, PT., Dellmann, HD., Berrier, HH., Case, AA., Collier, BL. :
Primary hyperparathyroidism in a beagle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 147:1201-6, 1965. Pubmed reference: 5894824.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 13 Jul 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 24 Nov 2012
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 09 Jun 2023