OMIA:000889-9031 : Scaleless in Gallus gallus (chicken)

Categories: Integument (skin) phene

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 605558 (gene)

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Autosomal recessive

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2012

Species-specific name: Also known as featherless

Species-specific symbol: sc

History: This mutation was first reported by Abbott and Asmundson (1957).

Inheritance: Abbott and Asmundson (1957) provided evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance.

Mapping: In a novel (for non-humans) strategy of genotyping just two pools of DNA (from 86 homozygotes and from 120 heterozygotes) with the Illumina 60 K chicken SNP chip, Wells et al. (2012) mapped this trait to a 1.25 Mb region of chromosome 4.

Molecular basis: Wells et al. (2012) reported a nonsense mutation (c.535A>T; p.R179X) in the FGF20 gene as the cause of this trait.

Breed: New Hampshire (Chicken) (VBO_0000576).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. (If a likely causal variant has been documented for the phene, see the variant table breeds in which the variant has been reported).

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
FGF20 fibroblast growth factor 20 Gallus gallus 4 NC_052535.1 (62783435..62787840) FGF20 Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene


By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective. Readers can re-sort on any column by clicking on the column header. Click it again to sort in a descending order. To create a multiple-field sort, hold down Shift while clicking on the second, third etc relevant column headers.

WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
327 Israeli experimental line, Israel (Chicken) Storrs Connecticut scaleless low line, United States of America (Chicken) UC Davis line, United States of America (Chicken) Scaleless FGF20 nonsense (stop-gain) Naturally occurring variant GRCg6a 4 g.63270401A>T c.535A>T p.(R179*) 2012 22712610 Variant coordinates obtained from or confirmed by EBI's Some Effect Predictor (VEP) tool

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2013). OMIA:000889-9031: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2016 Leroy, G., Besbes, B., Boettcher, P., Hoffmann, I., Capitan, A., Baumung, R. :
Rare phenotypes in domestic animals: unique resources for multiple applications. Anim Genet 47:141-53, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26662214. DOI: 10.1111/age.12393.
2012 Wells, K.L., Hadad, Y., Ben-Avraham, D., Hillel, J., Cahaner, A., Headon, D.J. :
Genome-wide SNP scan of pooled DNA reveals nonsense mutation in FGF20 in the Scaleless line of featherless chickens. BMC Genomics 13:257, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22712610. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-13-257.
2011 Azoulay, Y., Druyan, S., Yadgary, L., Hadad, Y., Cahaner, A. :
The viability and performance under hot conditions of featherless broilers versus fully feathered broilers. Poult Sci 90:19-29, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21177439. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2010-01044.
2008 Cahaner, A., Ajuh, J.A., Siegmund-Schultze, M., Azoulay, Y., Druyan, S., Zárate, A.V. :
Effects of the genetically reduced feather coverage in naked neck and featherless broilers on their performance under hot conditions. Poult Sci 87:2517-27, 2008. Pubmed reference: 19038808. DOI: 10.3382/ps.2008-00284.
2007 Drew, C.F., Lin, C.M., Jiang, T.X., Blunt, G., Mou, C., Chuong, C.M., Headon, D.J. :
The Edar subfamily in feather placode formation. Dev Biol 305:232-45, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17362907. DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2007.02.011.
Heidari, M., Fitzgerald, S.D., Zhang, H.M., Silva, R.F., Lee, L.F., Dunn, J.R. :
Marek's disease virus-induced skin leukosis in scaleless chickens: tumor development in the absence of feather follicles. Avian Dis 51:713-8, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17992931.
Houghton, L., Lindon, C.M., Freeman, A., Morgan, B.A. :
Abortive placode formation in the feather tract of the scaleless chicken embryo. Dev Dyn 236:3020-30, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17948257. DOI: 10.1002/dvdy.21337.
2005 Buhr, RJ., Bourassa, DV., Northcutt, JK., Hinton, A., Ingram, KD., Cason, JA. :
Bacteria recovery from genetically feathered and featherless broiler carcasses after immersion chilling. Poult Sci 84:1499-504, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16206575.
2004 Harris, M.P., Linkhart, B.L., Fallon, J.F. :
Bmp7 mediates early signaling events during induction of chick epidermal organs. Dev Dyn 231:22-32, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15305284. DOI: 10.1002/dvdy.20096.
Song, H.K., Lee, S.H., Goetinck, P.F. :
FGF-2 signaling is sufficient to induce dermal condensations during feather development. Dev Dyn 231:741-9, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15532057. DOI: 10.1002/dvdy.20243.
2003 Sawyer, R.H., Knapp, L.W. :
Avian skin development and the evolutionary origin of feathers. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol 298:57-72, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12949769. DOI: 10.1002/jez.b.26.
2000 Widelitz, R.B., Jiang, T.X., Lu, J., Chuong, C.M. :
beta-catenin in epithelial morphogenesis: conversion of part of avian foot scales into feather buds with a mutated beta-catenin. Dev Biol 219:98-114, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10677258. DOI: 10.1006/dbio.1999.9580.
1999 Vestergaard, K.S., Damm, B.I., Abbott, U.K., BildsøE, M. :
Regulation of dustbathing in feathered and featherless domestic chicks: the Lorenzian model revisited. Anim Behav 58:1017-1025, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10564604. DOI: 10.1006/anbe.1999.1233.
1996 Song, H.K., Wang, Y.Y., Goetinck, P.F. :
Fibroblast growth factor 2 can replace ectodermal signaling for feather development Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93:10246-10249, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8816784.
1994 Shames, R.B., Bade, B.C., Sawyer, R.H. :
Role of epidermal-dermal tissue interactions in regulating tenascin expression during development of the chick scutate scale. J Exp Zool 269:349-66, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7520479. DOI: 10.1002/jez.1402690408.
Song, H.K., Carver, W.E., Sawyer, R.H. :
Pattern formation in chick feather development: Distribution of beta 1-integrin in normal and scaleless embryos Developmental Dynamics 200:129-143, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7522651. DOI: 10.1002/aja.1002000205.
1993 Knapp, L.W., Shames, R.B., Barnes, G.L., Sawyer, R.H. :
Region-specific patterns of beta keratin expression during avian skin development. Dev Dyn 196:283-90, 1993. Pubmed reference: 7693054. DOI: 10.1002/aja.1001960411.
1992 Zeltinger, J., Sawyer, R.H. :
Avian Scale Development .17. The Epidermis of the Scaleless (sc/sc) Anterior Metatarsal Skin Is Determined, But the Dermis Lacks Permissive Cues for the Patterned Expression of the Determined State Developmental Dynamics 193:58-69, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1540706. DOI: 10.1002/aja.1001930109.
1991 Shames, R.B., Jennings, A.G., Sawyer, R.H. :
The Initial Expression and Patterned Appearance of Tenascin in Scutate Scales Is Absent from the Dermis of the Scaleless (sc/sc) Chicken Developmental Biology 147:174-186, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1715300.
1990 Sawyer, R.H. :
Avian Scale Development XIV - A Study of Cell Proliferation in the Epidermis of the Scaleless, SC/SC, Mutant Development Growth & Differentiation 32:217-222, 1990.
1984 Dhouailly, D., Sawyer, R.H. :
Avian scale development. XI. Initial appearance of the dermal defect in scaleless skin. Dev Biol 105:343-50, 1984. Pubmed reference: 6479443.
1983 Cisson, C.M., Wilson, B.W. :
Percutaneous toxicity and delayed neurotoxicity of organophosphates in the scaleless hen. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 67:310-21, 1983. Pubmed reference: 6845361.
1982 Knapp, L.W., Sawyer, R.H. :
Differences between normal and scaleless (sc/sc) chicken epidermal cell surfaces detected with wheat germ agglutinin. Exp Cell Res 139:443-7, 1982. Pubmed reference: 6896308.
McAleese, S.R., Sawyer, R.H. :
Avian scale development. IX. Scale formation by scaleless (sc/sc) epidermis under the influence of normal scale dermis. Dev Biol 89:493-502, 1982. Pubmed reference: 6173278.
Somes, R.G., Wiedenhefft, M. :
Cooked and organoleptic characteristics of scaleless broiler chickens Poultry Science 61:221-225, 1982.
Somes, R.G., Johnson, S. :
The effect of the scaleless gene, sc, on growth performance and carcass composition of broilers. Poult Sci 61:414-23, 1982. Pubmed reference: 7088797.
1981 Blanck, C.E., McAleese, S.R., Sawyer, R.H. :
Morphogenesis of conjunctival papillae from normal and scaleless chick embryos. Anat Rec 199:249-57, 1981. Pubmed reference: 7212323. DOI: 10.1002/ar.1091990209.
McAleese, S.R., Sawyer, R.H. :
Correcting the phenotype of the epidermis from chick embryos homozygous for the gene scaleless (sc/sc). Science 214:1033-4, 1981. Pubmed reference: 7029712.
Provine, R.R. :
Wing-flapping develops in chickens made flightless by feather mutations. Dev Psychobiol 14:481-6, 1981. Pubmed reference: 7274586. DOI: 10.1002/dev.420140510.
1980 Wilson, B.W., Cisson, C.M., Randall, W.R., Woodrow, J.E., Seiber, J.N., Knaak, J.B. :
Organophosphate risk assessment: field testing of DEE with the scaleless chicken. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 24:921-8, 1980. Pubmed reference: 7397430.
1979 Mirkes, P.E., Sawyer, R.H. :
Abnormal scale morphogenesis: relationship of polypeptide patterns to action of the scaleless gene. J Exp Zool 208:195-200, 1979. Pubmed reference: 469483. DOI: 10.1002/jez.1402080207.
Sawyer, R.H. :
Avian scale development: effect of the scaleless gene on morphogenesis and histogenesis. Dev Biol 68:1-15, 1979. Pubmed reference: 437312.
1977 Brotman, H.F. :
Epidermal-dermal tissue interactions between mutant and normal embryonic back skin: site of mutant gene activity determining abnormal feathering is in the epidermis. J Exp Zool 200:243-57, 1977. Pubmed reference: 325172. DOI: 10.1002/jez.1402000206.
Brotman, H.F. :
Abnormal morphogenesis of feather structures and pattern in the chick embryo integument. II. Histological description. J Exp Zool 200:107-24, 1977. Pubmed reference: 870614. DOI: 10.1002/jez.1402000114.
Brotman, H.F. :
Epidermal-dermal tissue interactions between mutant foot skin and normal back skin: a comparison of the inductive capacities of scaleless low line and normal anterior foot dermis. J Exp Zool 200:125-36, 1977. Pubmed reference: 323410. DOI: 10.1002/jez.1402000115.
1976 Brotman, H.F. :
Abnormal morphagenesis of feather structure and pattern in the chick embryo integument. I. Macroscopic description. J Exp Zool 196:323-9, 1976. Pubmed reference: 932663. DOI: 10.1002/jez.1401960307.
1971 Cain, J.R., Abbott, U.K. :
Heart rate studies with scaleless chickens. Poult Sci 50:126-34, 1971. Pubmed reference: 5550460.
1970 Wekstein, D.R., Zolman, J.F. :
Homeothermic development of young scaleless chicks. Br Poult Sci 11:399-402, 1970. Pubmed reference: 5433123. DOI: 10.1080/00071667008415829.
1964 Abbott, U.K., Asmundson, V.S., Raggi, L.G. :
Effects of acute and prolonged hypothermic stress on the incidence of heart and other lesions in scaleless chickens Federation Proceedings 23:311 only, 1964.
1963 Sengel, P., Abbott, U.K. :
In vitro studies with the scaleless mutant. Interactions duting feather and scale differentiation Journal of Heredity 54:255-262, 1963. Pubmed reference: 14098313.
1957 Abbott, U.K., Asmundson, V.S. :
Scaleless, an inherited ectodermal defect in the domestic fowls Journal of Heredity 46:63-70, 1957.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2005
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 18 Oct 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 23 Jun 2012
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  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 23 Nov 2012
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 05 Aug 2013