OMIA:001456-9796 : Recurrent airway obstruction in Equus caballus (horse)

Categories: Respiratory system phene , Immune system phene

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 600807 (trait)

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: no

Species-specific name: This disorder was previously known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic hypersensitivity bronchitis. The disease is also called equine asthma.

Species-specific symbol: RAO

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2023). OMIA:001456-9796: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2024 Durward-Akhurst, S.A., Marlowe, J.L., Schaefer, R.J., Springer, K., Grantham, B., Carey, W.K., Bellone, R.R., Mickelson, J.R., McCue, M.E. :
Predicted genetic burden and frequency of phenotype-associated variants in the horse. Sci Rep 14:8396, 2024. Pubmed reference: 38600096. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-024-57872-8.
2023 Frippiat, T., Art, T., Tosi, I. :
Airway hyperresponsiveness, but not bronchoalveolar inflammatory cytokines profiles, is modified at the subclinical onset of severe equine asthma. Animals (Basel) 13:2485, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37570294. DOI: 10.3390/ani13152485.
Herrmann, I., Sanchez, A.J. :
Efficacy and safety of subcutaneous allergen-specific immuno-therapy in horses with allergic cutaneous and respiratory diseases-A systematic review. Vet Sci 10:613, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37888565. DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100613.
Kozłowska, N., Wierzbicka, M., Pawliński, B., Domino, M. :
Co-occurrence of severe equine asthma and palatal disorders in privately owned pleasure horses. Animals (Basel) 13:1962, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37370472. DOI: 10.3390/ani13121962.
Riihimäki, M., Fegraeus, K., Nordlund, J., Waern, I., Wernersson, S., Akula, S., Hellman, L., Raine, A. :
Single-cell transcriptomics delineates the immune cell landscape in equine lower airways and reveals upregulation of FKBP5 in horses with asthma. Sci Rep 13:16261, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37758813. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-43368-4.
Sad, E.P., Hess, T.M., Santos, H.A., Lessa, D.A.B., Botteon, P.T.L. :
Molecular and cellular evaluation of horses with summer pasture associated asthma syndrome. J Equine Vet Sci 131:104928, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37730075. DOI: 10.1016/j.jevs.2023.104928.
Woodrow, J.S., Sheats, M.K., Cooper, B., Bayless, R. :
Asthma: The use of animal models and their translational utility. Cells 12:1091, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37048164. DOI: 10.3390/cells12071091.
2021 Borowska, A., Wolska, D., Niedzwiedz, A., Borowicz, H., Jaworski, Z., Siemieniuch, M., Szwaczkowski, T. :
Some genetic and environmental effects on equine asthma in Polish Konik horses. Animals (Basel) 11:2285, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34438743. DOI: 10.3390/ani11082285.
2020 Couetil, L., Cardwell, J.M., Leguillette, R., Mazan, M., Richard, E., Bienzle, D., Bullone, M., Gerber, V., Ivester, K., Lavoie, J.P., Martin, J., Moran, G., Niedźwiedź, A., Pusterla, N., Swiderski, C. :
Equine Asthma: Current Understanding and Future Directions. Front Vet Sci 7:450, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32903600. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00450.
2018 Mason, V.C., Schaefer, R.J., McCue, M.E., Leeb, T., Gerber, V. :
eQTL discovery and their association with severe equine asthma in European Warmblood horses. BMC Genomics 19:581, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30071827. DOI: 10.1186/s12864-018-4938-9.
2016 Niedzwiedz, A., Borowicz, H., Januszewska, L., Markiewicz-Gorka, I., Jaworski, Z. :
Serum 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine as a marker of DNA oxidative damage in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Acta Vet Scand 58:38, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27267076. DOI: 10.1186/s13028-016-0215-6.
2015 Gerber, V., Tessier, C., Marti, E. :
Genetics of upper and lower airway diseases in the horse. Equine Vet J 47:390-7, 2015. Pubmed reference: 24773614. DOI: 10.1111/evj.12289.
Korn, A., Miller, D., Dong, L., Buckles, E.L., Wagner, B., Ainsworth, D.M. :
Differential Gene Expression Profiles and Selected Cytokine Protein Analysis of Mediastinal Lymph Nodes of Horses with Chronic Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO) Support an Interleukin-17 Immune Response. PLoS One 10:e0142622, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26561853. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142622.
Pacholewska, A., Jagannathan, V., Drögemüller, M., Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Lanz, S., Hamza, E., Dermitzakis, E.T., Marti, E., Leeb, T., Gerber, V. :
Impaired Cell Cycle Regulation in a Natural Equine Model of Asthma. PLoS One 10:e0136103, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26292153. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136103.
2012 Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Gerber, V., Leeb, T. :
Association analysis of SNPs in the IL21R gene with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in Swiss Warmblood horses. Anim Genet 43:475-6, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22497324. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2011.02289.x.
Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Swinburne, J.E., Drögemüller, C., Dolf, G., Janda, J., Leeb, T., Gerber, V. :
The interleukin 4 receptor gene and its role in recurrent airway obstruction in Swiss Warmblood horses. Anim Genet 43:450-3, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22497430. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2011.02277.x.
Shakhsi-Niaei, M., Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Drögemüller, C., Swinburne, J., Ehrmann, C., Saftic, D., Ramseyer, A., Gerber, V., Dolf, G., Leeb, T. :
Replication and fine-mapping of a QTL for recurrent airway obstruction in European Warmblood horses. Anim Genet 43:627-31, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22497545. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2011.02315.x.
2011 Leclere, M., Lavoie-Lamoureux, A., Lavoie, J.P. :
Heaves, an asthma-like disease of horses. Respirology 16:1027-46, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21824219. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1843.2011.02033.x.
2010 Scharrenberg, A., Gerber, V., Swinburne, J.E., Wilson, A.D., Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Laumen, E., Marti, E. :
IgE, IgGa, IgGb and IgG(T) serum antibody levels in offspring of two sires affected with equine recurrent airway obstruction. Anim Genet 41 Suppl 2:131-7, 2010. Pubmed reference: 21070286. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2010.02122.x.
Shakhsi-Niaei, M., Klukowska-Rotzler, J., Drogemuller, C., Swinburne, JE., Gerber, V., Leeb, T. :
Characterization of the equine ITGAX gene and its association with recurrent airway obstruction in European Warmblood horses. Anim Genet 41:559-560, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20477795. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2010.02066.x.
2009 Gerber, V., Baleri, D., Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Swinburne, J.E., Dolf, G. :
Mixed inheritance of equine recurrent airway obstruction. J Vet Intern Med 23:626-30, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19645845. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2009.0292.x.
Swinburne, JE., Bogle, H., Klukowska-Rotzler, J., Drogemuller, M., Leeb, T., Temperton, E., Dolf, G., Gerber, V. :
A whole-genome scan for recurrent airway obstruction in Warmblood sport horses indicates two positional candidate regions. Mamm Genome 20:504-15, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19760324. DOI: 10.1007/s00335-009-9214-5.
2008 Art, T., Bureau, F., Robinson, NE. :
Hunting for a key to the enigma of heaves in the black box of the white cells. Vet J 177:307-8, 2008. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.10.005.
Art, T., Bureau, F. :
Hunting for a key to the enigma of heaves in the black box of the white cells (comment on Cunningham and Dunkel, 2008) Vet J 177:307-8, 2008.
Bakos, Z. :
Digital luminescence thoracic radiography in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Vet Rec 162:122-4, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18223270.
Christmann, U., Welles, EG., Waldridge, BM., Schumacher, J., Grier, BL., Hite, RD. :
Abnormalities in Lung Surfactant in Horses Clinically Affected with Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO). J Vet Intern Med 22:1452-5, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18761600. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0177.x.
Cunningham, FM., Dunkel, B. :
Equine recurrent airway obstruction and insect bite hypersensitivity: understanding the diseases and uncovering possible new therapeutic approaches. Vet J 177:334-44, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18023376. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.10.005.
Deluca, L., Erb, HN., Young, JC., Perkins, GA., Ainsworth, DM. :
The effect of adding oral dexamethasone to feed alterations on the airway cell inflammatory gene expression in stabled horses affected with recurrent airway obstruction. J Vet Intern Med 22:427-35, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18346142. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0055.x.
Gehlen, H., Bubeck, K., Rohn, K., Stadler, P. :
Influence of valvular insufficiency and recurrent airway obstruction on haemodynamics and therapy in warmblood horses with atrial fibrillation. Res Vet Sci 85:333-9, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18158167. DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2007.11.001.
Gehlen, H., Oey, L., Rohn, K., Bilzer, T., Stadler, P. :
Pulmonary dysfunction and skeletal muscle changes in horses with RAO. J Vet Intern Med 22:1014-21, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18498323. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0111.x.
Gerber, V., Swinburne, J.E., Blott, S.C., Nussbaumer, P., Ramseyer, A., Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Dolf, G., Marti, E., Burger, D., Leeb, T. :
[Genetics of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)]. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 115:271-5, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18672738.
Riihimäki, M., Raine, A., Pourazar, J., Sandström, T., Art, T., Lekeux, P., Couëtil, L., Pringle, J. :
Epithelial expression of mRNA and protein for IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha in endobronchial biopsies in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. BMC Vet Res 4:8, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18294392. DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-4-8.
Riihimäki, M., Raine, A., Art, T., Lekeux, P., Couëtil, L., Pringle, J. :
Partial divergence of cytokine mRNA expression in bronchial tissues compared to bronchoalveolar lavage cells in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 122:256-64, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18243337. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2007.12.001.
Ryhner, T., Müller, N., Balmer, V., Gerber, V. :
Increased mucus accumulation in horses chronically affected with recurrent airway obstruction is not associated with up-regulation of CLCA1, EGFR, MUC5AC, Bcl-2, IL-13 and INF-gamma expression. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 125:8-17, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18597857. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2008.05.011.
Theegarten, D., Sachse, K., Mentrup, B., Fey, K., Hotzel, H., Anhenn, O. :
Chlamydophila spp. infection in horses with recurrent airway obstruction: similarities to human chronic obstructive disease. Respir Res 9:14, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18230187. DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-9-14.
2007 Abraham, G., Kottke, C., Ungemach, FR. :
Equine recurrent airway obstruction does not alter airway muscarinic acetylcholine receptor expression and subtype distribution. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 30:401-9, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17803731. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2885.2007.00897.x.
Ainsworth, DM., Wagner, B., Erb, HN., Young, JC., Retallick, DE. :
Effects of in vitro exposure to hay dust on expression of interleukin-17, -23, -8, and -1beta and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 by pulmonary mononuclear cells isolated from horses chronically affected with recurrent airway disease. Am J Vet Res 68:1361-9, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18052742. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.68.12.1361.
Berndt, A., Derksen, FJ., Venta, PJ., Ewart, S., Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, V., Robinson, NE. :
Elevated amount of Toll-like receptor 4 mRNA in bronchial epithelial cells is associated with airway inflammation in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 292:L936-43, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17158595. DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00394.2006.
Dunkel, B., Rickards, KJ., Page, CP., Cunningham, FM. :
Platelet activation in ponies with airway inflammation. Equine Vet J 39:557-61, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18065316. DOI: 10.2746/042516407X217885.
Ewart, SL., Robinson, NE. :
Genes and respiratory disease: a first step on a long journey. Equine Vet J 39:270-4, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17520980.
Hotchkiss, JW., Reid, SW., Christley, RM. :
A survey of horse owners in Great Britain regarding horses in their care. Part 2: Risk factors for recurrent airway obstruction. Equine Vet J 39:301-8, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17722720.
Jost, U., Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Dolf, G., Swinburne, J.E., Ramseyer, A., Bugno, M., Burger, D., Blott, S., Gerber, V. :
A region on equine chromosome 13 is linked to recurrent airway obstruction in horses. Equine Vet J 39:236-41, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17520975.
Künzle, F., Gerber, V., Van Der Haegen, A., Wampfler, B., Straub, R., Marti, E. :
IgE-bearing cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and allergen-specific IgE levels in sera from RAO-affected horses. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 54:40-7, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17359454. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0442.2007.00870.x.
Miskovic, M., Couëtil, L.L., Thompson, C.A. :
Lung function and airway cytologic profiles in horses with recurrent airway obstruction maintained in low-dust environments. J Vet Intern Med 21:1060-6, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17939565.
Pietra, M., Peli, A., Bonato, A., Ducci, A., Cinotti, S. :
Equine bronchoalveolar lavage cytokines in the development of recurrent airway obstruction. Vet Res Commun 31 Suppl 1:313-6, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17682903. DOI: 10.1007/s11259-007-0055-y.
Ramseyer, A., Gaillard, C., Burger, D., Straub, R., Jost, U., Boog, C., Marti, E., Gerber, V. :
Effects of genetic and environmental factors on chronic lower airway disease in horses. J Vet Intern Med 21:149-56, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17338142.
Range, F., Mundhenk, L., Gruber, AD. :
A soluble secreted glycoprotein (eCLCA1) is overexpressed due to goblet cell hyperplasia and metaplasia in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Vet Pathol 44:901-11, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18039903. DOI: 10.1354/vp.44-6-901.
2006 Ainsworth, D.M., Wagner, B., Franchini, M., Grünig, G., Erb, H.N., Tan, J.Y. :
Time-dependent alterations in gene expression of interleukin-8 in the bronchial epithelium of horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Am J Vet Res 67:669-77, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16579761. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.67.4.669.
Couëtil, L.L., Art, T., de Moffarts, B., Becker, M., Mélotte, D., Jaspar, F., Bureau, F., Lekeux, P. :
DNA binding activity of transcription factors in bronchial cells of horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 113:11-20, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16753225. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2006.03.020.
Hotchkiss, JW., Reid, SW., Christley, R. :
Construction and validation of a risk-screening questionnaire for the investigation of recurrent airway obstruction in epidemiological studies of horse populations in Great Britain. Prev Vet Med 75:8-21, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16488493. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2006.01.001.
Klukowska-Rötzler, J., Bugno, M., Sander, P., Slota, E., Dolf, G., Chowdhary, B.P., Leeb, T., Gerber, V. :
Chromosomal assignment of the two candidate genes (EGFR, CLCA1) for equine recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) by FISH and RH mapping. Hereditas 143:138-41, 2006. Pubmed reference: 17362347. DOI: 10.1111/j.2006.0018-0661.01947.x.
2005 Anton, F., Leverkoehne, I., Mundhenk, L., Thoreson, WB., Gruber, AD. :
Overexpression of eCLCA1 in small airways of horses with recurrent airway obstruction. J Histochem Cytochem 53:1011-21, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15879574. DOI: 10.1369/jhc.4A6599.2005.
Horohov, DW., Beadle, RE., Mouch, S., Pourciau, SS. :
Temporal regulation of cytokine mRNA expression in equine recurrent airway obstruction. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 108:237-45, 2005. Pubmed reference: 16098607. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2005.07.013.
2003 Couëtil, L.L., Ward, M.P. :
Analysis of risk factors for recurrent airway obstruction in North American horses: 1,444 cases (1990-1999). J Am Vet Med Assoc 223:1645-50, 2003. Pubmed reference: 14664454.
Gerber, V., Robinson, NE., Venta, RJ., Rawson, J., Jefcoat, AM., Hotchkiss, JA. :
Mucin genes in horse airways: MUC5AC, but not MUC2, may play a role in recurrent airway obstruction. Equine Vet J 35:252-7, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12755421.
Léguillette, R. :
Recurrent airway obstruction--heaves. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 19:63-86, vi, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12747662.
2002 Davis, E., Rush, BR. :
Equine recurrent airway obstruction: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and patient management. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 18:453-67, vi, 2002. Pubmed reference: 12516928.
1995 Marti, E., Lazary, S., Gerber, H. :
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [summary] Equine Veterinary Journal 27:413, 1995.
1991 Marti, E., Gerber, H., Essich, G., Oulehla, J., Lazary, S. :
The Genetic Basis of Equine Allergic Diseases .1. Chronic Hypersensitivity Bronchitis Equine Vet J 23:457-60, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1778165. DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.1991.tb03761.x.
1985 Derksen, FJ., Robinson, NE., Armstrong, PJ., Stick, JA., Slocombe, RF. :
Airway reactivity in ponies with recurrent airway obstruction (heaves). J Appl Physiol 58:598-604, 1985. Pubmed reference: 3980362.
1969 Gillespie, J.R., Tyler, W.S. :
Chronic alveolar emphysema in the horse. Adv Vet Sci Comp Med 13:59-99, 1969. Pubmed reference: 4898008.
1959 Alexander, A.F. :
Chronic alveolar emphysema in the horse. Am Rev Respir Dis 80:141-6, 1959. Pubmed reference: 13670415.
1957 Koch, P. :
Heredity of chronic alveolar emphysema of the lungs in horses Deutsche Tierartzliche Wochenschrift 64:485-486, 1957.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 06 Sep 2008
  • Changed by Carrie Finno on 11 Dec 2013
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 17 Sep 2021
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 05 Nov 2023