OMIA:001473-9615 : Dwarfism, growth-hormone deficiency in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)

In other species: taurine cattle , indicine cattle (zebu)

Categories: Skeleton phene (incl. short stature & teeth)

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 262400 (trait) , 139250 (gene) , 612781 (trait) , 173100 (trait)

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2020

Species-specific name: isolated growth hormone deficiency

Molecular basis: Iio et al. (2020) identified a likely causal variant, namely "a homozygous in-frame 6-bp deletion (c.573_578del) that resulted in 1 amino acid substitution (K165N) and 2 amino acid deletions (K166del and D167del) in exon 5 of GH1"

Clinical features: Iio et al. (2020) :"A 6-mo-old female Chihuahua was presented with recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia and collapse. Physical examination revealed proportionate dwarfism, retained puppy hair coat, retained deciduous teeth, and open fontanelles. Routine blood tests revealed hypoglycemia, thrombocytosis, hypoproteinemia, and elevated alkaline phosphatase activity. The urinalysis, radiographs, and ultrasonographs were unremarkable. Endocrine testing revealed that insulin-like growth factor 1 was below the detection limit; concentrations of total thyroxine, baseline cortisol, and cortisol stimulated by tetracosactide acetate were within their reference intervals. The pituitary gland showed no organic abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging. For definitive diagnosis, we conducted the stimulation test for growth hormone (GH) release and diagnosed isolated GH deficiency."

Breeds: Brussels Griffon (Dog) (VBO_0200241), Chihuahua (Dog) (VBO_0200338), Petit Brabancon (Dog) (VBO_0201011), Russian Bolonka (Dog) (VBO_0201147).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. (If a likely causal variant has been documented for the phene, see the variant table breeds in which the variant has been reported).

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
GH1 growth hormone Canis lupus familiaris 9 NC_051813.1 (13499392..13493565) GH1 Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene


By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective. Readers can re-sort on any column by clicking on the column header. Click it again to sort in a descending order. To create a multiple-field sort, hold down Shift while clicking on the second, third etc relevant column headers.

WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
1232 Chihuahua (Dog) Dwarfism, growth-hormone deficiency GH1 deletion, small (<=20) Naturally occurring variant CanFam3.1 9 g.11832438_11832443del c.573_578del p.(K191_D193delinsN) NM_001003168.1; NP_001003168.1; variant initially identified in Chihuahuas and later reported in additional breeds: PMID: 37582787 2020 32646299 Genomic coordinates in CanFam3.1 provided by Robert Kuhn

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2024). OMIA:001473-9615: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Meadows, J.R.S., Kidd, J.M., Wang, G.D., Parker, H.G., Schall, P.Z., Bianchi, M., Christmas, M.J., Bougiouri, K., Buckley, R.M., Hitte, C., Nguyen, A.K., Wang, C., Jagannathan, V., Niskanen, J.E., Frantz, L.A.F., Arumilli, M., Hundi, S., Lindblad-Toh, K., Ginja, C., Agustina, K.K., André, C., Boyko, A.R., Davis, B.W., Drögemüller, M., Feng, X.Y., Gkagkavouzis, K., Iliopoulos, G., Harris, A.C., Hytönen, M.K., Kalthoff, D.C., Liu, Y.H., Lymberakis, P., Poulakakis, N., Pires, A.E., Racimo, F., Ramos-Almodovar, F., Savolainen, P., Venetsani, S., Tammen, I., Triantafyllidis, A., vonHoldt, B., Wayne, R.K., Larson, G., Nicholas, F.W., Lohi, H., Leeb, T., Zhang, Y.P., Ostrander, E.A. :
Genome sequencing of 2000 canids by the Dog10K consortium advances the understanding of demography, genome function and architecture. Genome Biol 24:187, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37582787. DOI: 10.1186/s13059-023-03023-7.
2020 Iio, A., Maeda, S., Yonezawa, T., Momoi, Y., Motegi, T. :
Isolated growth hormone deficiency in a Chihuahua with a GH1 mutation. J Vet Diagn Invest :1040638720938671, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32646299. DOI: 10.1177/1040638720938671.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 24 Jul 2020
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 24 Jul 2020
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 18 Aug 2023
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 26 May 2024