OMIA:001512-9615 : Transitional cell carcinoma in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)

In other species: fishing cat

Categories: Neoplasm , Renal / urinary system phene

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 164757 (gene) , 109800 (trait)

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Somatic mutation

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2015

Cross-species summary: Renamed from 'Invasive transitional cell carcinoma' [07/04/2024]

Species-specific name: Invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder; Canine InvTCC; urothelial carcinomas; transitional cell carcinoma; TCC

Species-specific symbol: InvTCC

Mapping: Position 8296284 on chromosome CFA16 (Decker et al., 2015)

Markers: By genotyping biopsy samples or tissue from cytological slides taken from 87 dogs with prostate carcinomas (PCa), Grassinger et al. (2019) concluded that "BRAF mutation analysis is a highly specific method and may aid in confirming the diagnosis of PCa in histologically and cytologically questionable cases. PCa positive for BRAF mutation exhibited more criteria of malignancy than PCa without this mutation. The clinical, therapeutic, and prognostic relevance of these findings needs to be evaluated by further studies."

Molecular basis: Decker et al. (2015) reported that "four histologically confirmed canine InvTCC tumors [from] . . . two Scottish terriers, one West Highland white terrier and one Shetland sheepdog . . . harbor a nonsynonymous, single-nucleotide variant at genomic position 8296284 on Canis familiaris chromosome 16 (CFA16), which results in a valine to glutamic acid substitution at codon 595 of canine BRAF . . . . This mutation, BRAF(V595E), is homologous by multiple sequence alignment to the oncogenic human BRAF(V600E) mutation." IT IS IMPORTANT TO NOTE (as the authors stressed) THAT THIS IS A SOMATIC MUTATION, AND IS NOT INHERITED. Thomas et al. (2023) "performed DNA sequencing analysis of 28 canine UC [urothelial carcinomas] cases that do not bear this mutation [BRAF(V595E), OMIA variant ID:93], to identify alternative mutations that may contribute to tumor development. We identified 13 specimens (46% of cases) harboring short in-frame deletions clustering elsewhere within the BRAF gene, or within MAP2K1, which also functions in the MAPK pathway." A CAUTIONARY REPORT: Chambers et al. (2023) reported a Miniature Dachshund in which "urothelial carcinoma was clinically suspected based on the detection of BRAFV595E mutation in a urinary sample. However, there were no invasive tumors on gross and histopathological examinations, and mucosal dysplasia was found in the bladder neck and urethra. Digital PCR using DNA samples extracted from these lesions revealed the BRAFV595E mutation, suggesting that dysplastic change in the mucosa is associated with an activating BRAF mutation frequently found in invasive urothelial carcinomas of dogs".

Clinical features: Invasive transitional cell carcinoma usually manifests as a chronic urinary tract infection. The clinical signs are non-specific and include pollakiuria, haematuria, and stranguria commonly in association with other conditions such as urinary tract infection, bladder stones, benign polyps, and cystitis (Thomas et al., 2023). ITCC is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage (invasion of the detrusor muscle), where dogs may experience anuria (mass obstruction/urethral extension) (Thomas et al., 2023). Additionally, survival time can be less than 12 months from the time of diagnosis (Thomas et al., 2023). Gold standard for diagnosis is histopathologic evaluation of tissue biopsies (Thomas et al., 2023). Investigation of associated genes is possible (BRAF V595E + MAP2K1 ) from a urine sample with (droplet digital) PCR, however a negative result does not rule out ITCC (Thomas et al., 2023). IT thanks DVM student Tori Stragliotto, who provided the basis of this contribution in May 2023.

Breeds: Beagle (Dog) (VBO_0200131), Scottish Terrier (Dog) (VBO_0201198), Shetland Sheepdog (Dog) (VBO_0201217), West Highland White Terrier (Dog) (VBO_0201415).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. (If a likely causal variant has been documented for the phene, see the variant table breeds in which the variant has been reported).

Associated genes:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
BRAF B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase Canis lupus familiaris 16 NC_051820.1 (8065738..8237942) BRAF Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene
MAP2K1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 Canis lupus familiaris 30 NC_051834.1 (30879701..30957083) MAP2K1 Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene


By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective. Readers can re-sort on any column by clicking on the column header. Click it again to sort in a descending order. To create a multiple-field sort, hold down Shift while clicking on the second, third etc relevant column headers.

WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
93 Invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder BRAF missense Naturally occurring variant CanFam3.1 16 g.8296284T>A c.1643T>A p.(V548E) XM_005629551.3; XP_005629608.1; published as somatic mutation p.(V594E) 2015 25767210

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2023). OMIA:001512-9615: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2024 Aeschlimann, L., Kehl, A., Guscetti, F., Posthaus, C., Aupperle-Lellbach, H., Rottenberg, S., de Brot, S. :
Effective detection of BRAF V595E mutation in canine urothelial and prostate carcinomas using immunohistochemistry. Vet Comp Oncol 22:295-302, 2024. Pubmed reference: 38659202. DOI: 10.1111/vco.12978.
2023 Brambilla, E., Ciaputa, R., Crepaldi, P., Dzimira, S., Nowak, M., Dziegiel, P., Piotrowska, A., Mollica Govoni, V., Fonseca-Alves, C.E., Laufer-Amorim, R., Stefanello, D., Romussi, S., Grieco, V. :
Canine urothelial carcinoma: expression of Periostin in spontaneous canine urothelial carcinoma and its correlation with histological features. Front Vet Sci 10:1258247, 2023. Pubmed reference: 38076555. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2023.1258247.
Chambers, J.K., Takahashi, N., Kato, S., Hashimoto, Y., Goto-Koshino, Y., Uchida, K. :
Diagnostic challenge in veterinary pathology: Detection of BRAF^V595E mutation in a dog with follicular cystitis and flat urothelial lesion with atypia. Vet Pathol 61:335-338, 2023. Pubmed reference: 38088189. DOI: 10.1177/03009858231217242.
Küchler, L., Posthaus, C., Jäger, K., Guscetti, F., van der Weyden, L., von Bomhard, W., Schmidt, J.M., Farra, D., Aupperle-Lellbach, H., Kehl, A., Rottenberg, S., de Brot, S. :
Artificial intelligence to predict the BRAF V595E mutation in canine urinary bladder urothelial carcinomas. Animals (Basel) 13:2404, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37570213. DOI: 10.3390/ani13152404.
Okumura, S., Ohsato, Y. :
A novel rapid detection method for a single-nucleotide substitution mutation derived from canine urothelial and prostatic carcinoma cells present in small amounts in urine sediments. PLoS One 18:e0286229, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37733700. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0286229.
Thomas, R., Wiley, C.A., Droste, E.L., Robertson, J., Inman, B.A., Breen, M. :
Whole exome sequencing analysis of canine urothelial carcinomas without BRAF V595E mutation: Short in-frame deletions in BRAF and MAP2K1 suggest alternative mechanisms for MAPK pathway disruption. PLoS Genet 19:e1010575, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37079639. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1010575.
2022 Dhawan, D., Ramos-Vara, J.A., Utturkar, S.M., Ruple, A., Tersey, S.A., Nelson, J.B., Cooper, B.R., Heng, H.G., Ostrander, E.A., Parker, H.G., Hahn, N.M., Adams, L.G., Fulkerson, C.M., Childress, M.O., Bonney, P.L., Royce, C., Fourez, L.M., Enstrom, A.W., Ambrosius, L.A., Knapp, D.W. :
Identification of a naturally-occurring canine model for early detection and intervention research in high grade urothelial carcinoma. Front Oncol 12:1011969, 2022. Pubmed reference: 36439482. DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2022.1011969.
Gedon, J., Kehl, A., Aupperle-Lellbach, H., von Bomhard, W., Schmidt, J.M. :
BRAF mutation status and its prognostic significance in 79 canine urothelial carcinomas: A retrospective study (2006-2019). Vet Comp Oncol 20:449-457, 2022. Pubmed reference: 34878687. DOI: 10.1111/vco.12790.
2021 Rossman, P., Zabka, T.S., Ruple, A., Tuerck, D., Ramos-Vara, J.A., Liu, L., Mohallem, R., Merchant, M., Franco, J., Fulkerson, C.M., Bhide, K.P., Breen, M., Aryal, U.K., Murray, E., Dybdal, N., Utturkar, S.M., Fourez, L.M., Enstrom, A.W., Dhawan, D., Knapp, D.W. :
Phase I/II trial of vemurafenib in dogs with naturally occurring, BRAF-mutated urothelial carcinoma. Mol Cancer Ther 20:2177-2188, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34433660. DOI: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-20-0893.
2019 Grassinger, J.M., Aupperle-Lellbach, H., Erhard, H., Merz, S., Klopfleisch, R. :
[Detection of BRAF mutation in canine prostatic diseases]. Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 47:313-320, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31627222. DOI: 10.1055/a-0987-8212.
Knapp, D.W., Dhawan, D., Ramos-Vara, J.A., Ratliff, T.L., Cresswell, G.M., Utturkar, S., Sommer, B.C., Fulkerson, C.M., Hahn, N.M. :
Naturally-occurring invasive urothelial carcinoma in dogs, a unique model to drive advances in managing muscle invasive bladder cancer in humans. Front Oncol 9:1493, 2019. Pubmed reference: 32039002. DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2019.01493.
2015 Decker, B., Parker, H.G., Dhawan, D., Kwon, E.M., Karlins, E., Davis, B.W., Ramos-Vara, J.A., Bonney, P.L., McNiel, E.A., Knapp, D.W., Ostrander, E.A. :
Homologous mutation to human BRAF V600E is common in naturally occurring canine bladder cancer--Evidence for a relevant model system and urine-based diagnostic test. Mol Cancer Res 13:993-1002, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25767210. DOI: 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-14-0689.
Mochizuki, H., Shapiro, S.G., Breen, M. :
Detection of BRAF Mutation in Urine DNA as a Molecular Diagnostic for Canine Urothelial and Prostatic Carcinoma. PLoS One 10:e0144170, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26649430. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144170.
2014 Knapp, D.W., Ramos-Vara, J.A., Moore, G.E., Dhawan, D., Bonney, P.L., Young, K.E. :
Urinary bladder cancer in dogs, a naturally occurring model for cancer biology and drug development. ILAR J 55:100-18, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24936033. DOI: 10.1093/ilar/ilu018.
2004 Glickman, LT., Raghavan, M., Knapp, DW., Bonney, PL., Dawson, MH. :
Herbicide exposure and the risk of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in Scottish Terriers. J Am Vet Med Assoc 224:1290-7, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15112777.
2000 Knapp, D., Glickman, N., DeNicola, D., Bonney, P., Lin, T., Glickman, L. :
Naturally-occurring canine transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A relevant model of human invasive bladder cancer Urology Oncology 5:47-59, 2000.
1989 Glickman, LT., Schofer, FS., McKee, LJ., Reif, JS., Goldschmidt, MH. :
Epidemiologic study of insecticide exposures, obesity, and risk of bladder cancer in household dogs. J Toxicol Environ Health 28:407-14, 1989. Pubmed reference: 2593174. DOI: 10.1080/15287398909531360.
1976 Hayes, HM. :
Canine bladder cancer: epidemiologic features. Am J Epidemiol 104:673-7, 1976. Pubmed reference: 998613.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 02 Nov 2010
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 24 Mar 2015
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 23 Jan 2018
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 23 Oct 2019
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 15 May 2020
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 19 Apr 2021
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 17 Sep 2021
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 10 Jan 2023
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 22 Apr 2023
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 09 Jun 2023
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 17 Dec 2023