OMIA:001664-9796 : Insect bite hypersensitivity, susceptibility to in Equus caballus (horse)

In other species: taurine cattle

Categories: Integument (skin) phene , Immune system phene

Links to MONDO diseases: No links.

Mendelian trait/disorder: no

Mode of inheritance: Multifactorial

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: no

Species-specific name: Also known as summer mange; Queensland itch; sweet itch; summer eczema; Culicoides hypersensitivity

Mapping: Schurink et al. (2012) conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving 70,000 SNPs genotyped on 200 Shetland ponies and 146 Icelandic horses, in a matched case-control study. They "identified several genomic regions associated with insect bite hypersensitivity in Shetland pony mares and Icelandic horses. On chromosome 20, associated genomic regions in both breeds were within 2 Mb from the equine lymphocyte antigen class II region." From a GWAS on Exmoor ponies genotyped with the 670K Axiom Equine Genotyping Array (yielding 452,457 informative SNPs on 268 animals), Velie et al. (2016) identified "two regions of interest on Chromosome 8. The first region contained the most significant SNP identified, which was located in an intron of the DCC netrin 1 receptor gene. The second region identified contained multiple top SNPs and encompassed the PIGN, KIAA1468, TNFRSF11A, ZCCHC2, and PHLPP1 genes". A GWAS conducted "on 177 affected and 178 unaffected Icelandic horses" by Strestha et al. (2019) confirmed "the polygenic nature of IBH susceptibility", highlighting "associated regions in E. caballus (ECA) 1, 3, 15 and 18".

Genetic engineering: Unknown
Have human generated variants been created, e.g. through genetic engineering and gene editing

Breeds: Friesian (Horse) (VBO_0000969), Iceland Pony (Horse) (VBO_0000990), Old Kladruby Horse (Horse) (VBO_0001033), Shetland Pony (Horse) (VBO_0001066).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. For breeds in which a likely causal variant has been documented, see the variant table below

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2023). OMIA:001664-9796: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Cox, A., Stewart, A.J. :
Insect bite hypersensitivity in horses: Causes, diagnosis, scoring and new therapies. Animals (Basel) 13, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37570323. DOI: 10.3390/ani13152514.
Herrmann, I., Sanchez, A.J. :
Efficacy and safety of subcutaneous allergen-specific immuno-therapy in horses with allergic cutaneous and respiratory diseases-A systematic review. Vet Sci 10, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37888565. DOI: 10.3390/vetsci10100613.
Langreder, N., Schäckermann, D., Meier, D., Becker, M., Schubert, M., Dübel, S., Reinard, T., Figge-Wegener, S., Roßbach, K., Bäumer, W., Ladel, S., Hust, M. :
Development of an inhibiting antibody against equine interleukin 5 to treat insect bite hypersensitivity of horses. Sci Rep 13:4029, 2023. Pubmed reference: 36899044. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-31173-y.
Marsella, R., White, S., Fadok, V.A., Wilson, D., Mueller, R., Outerbridge, C., Rosenkrantz, W. :
Equine allergic skin diseases: Clinical consensus guidelines of the World Association for Veterinary Dermatology. Vet Dermatol 34:175-208, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37154488. DOI: 10.1111/vde.13168.
Pantelyushin, S., Rhiner, T., Jebbawi, F., Sella, F., Waldern, N., Lam, J., Chemnitzer, A., Fricker, A., Schoster, A., Birkmann, K., Widmer, D., Canonica, F., Fettelschoss-Gabriel, A. :
Interleukin 5-dependent inflammatory eosinophil subtype involved in allergic insect bite hypersensitivity of horses. Allergy , 2023. Pubmed reference: 37605865. DOI: 10.1111/all.15859.
Pessoa, V.C., Branco-Ferreira, M., Jónsdóttir, S., Marti, E., Tilley, P. :
Comparison of skin prick tests (SPT), intradermal tests (IDT) and in vitro tests in the characterization of insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in a population of Lusitano horses: Contribution for future implementation of SPT in IBH diagnosis. Animals (Basel) 13, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37684997. DOI: 10.3390/ani13172733.
Rhiner, T., Fettelschoss, V., Schoster, A., Birkmann, K., Fettelschoss-Gabriel, A. :
Corrigendum to "Targeting eosinophils by active vaccination against interleukin-5 reduces basophil counts in horses with insect bite hypersensitivity in the 2nd year of vaccination" Vet. J. 288 (October) (2022) 105896. Vet J 300-302:106027, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37666035. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2023.106027.
Simonin, E.M., Wagner, B. :
IgE-binding monocytes upregulate the coagulation cascade in allergic horses. Genes Immun , 2023. Pubmed reference: 37193769. DOI: 10.1038/s41435-023-00207-w.
Söderroos, D., Ignell, R., Haubro Andersen, P., Bergvall, K., Riihimäki, M. :
The effect of insect bite hypersensitivity on movement activity and behaviour of the horse. Animals (Basel) 13:1283, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37106846. DOI: 10.3390/ani13081283.
2022 Rhiner, T., Fettelschoss, V., Schoster, A., Birkmann, K., Fettelschoss-Gabriel, A. :
Targeting eosinophils by active vaccination against interleukin-5 reduces basophil counts in horses with insect bite hypersensitivity in the 2nd year of vaccination. Vet J 288:105896, 2022. Pubmed reference: 36126798. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2022.105896.
2021 Vostry, L., Vostra-Vydrova, H., Citek, J., Gorjanc, G., Curik, I. :
Association of inbreeding and regional equine leucocyte antigen homozygosity with the prevalence of insect bite hypersensitivity in Old Kladruber horse. Anim Genet 52:422-30, 2021. Pubmed reference: 33970495. DOI: 10.1111/age.13075.
2020 Cvitas, I., Oberhänsli, S., Leeb, T., Dettwiler, M., Müller, E., Bruggman, R., Marti, E.I. :
Investigating the epithelial barrier and immune signatures in the pathogenesis of equine insect bite hypersensitivity. PLoS One 15:e0232189, 2020. Pubmed reference: 32343720. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0232189.
Shrestha, M., Solé, M., Ducro, B.J., Sundquist, M., Thomas, R., Schurink, A., Eriksson, S., Lindgren, G. :
Genome-wide association study for insect bite hypersensitivity susceptibility in horses revealed novel associated loci on chromosome 1. J Anim Breed Genet 137:223-233, 2020. Pubmed reference: 31489730. DOI: 10.1111/jbg.12436.
2018 Schurink, A., da Silva, V.H., Velie, B.D., Dibbits, B.W., Crooijmans, R.P.M.A., Franҫois, L., Janssens, S., Stinckens, A., Blott, S., Buys, N., Lindgren, G., Ducro, B.J. :
Copy number variations in Friesian horses and genetic risk factors for insect bite hypersensitivity. BMC Genet 19:49, 2018. Pubmed reference: 30060732. DOI: 10.1186/s12863-018-0657-0.
2016 Velie, B.D., Shrestha, M., Franҫois, L., Schurink, A., Tesfayonas, Y.G., Stinckens, A., Blott, S., Ducro, B.J., Mikko, S., Thomas, R., Swinburne, J.E., Sundqvist, M., Eriksson, S., Buys, N., Lindgren, G. :
Using an Inbred Horse Breed in a High Density Genome-Wide Scan for Genetic Risk Factors of Insect Bite Hypersensitivity (IBH). PLoS One 11:e0152966, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27070818. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152966.
2015 Peeters, L.M., Janssens, S., Brebels, M., Buys, N. :
Genetic parameters and estimated breeding values of insect bite hypersensitivity in Belgian Warmblood horses. Vet J 206:420-2, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26586216. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2015.08.012.
Shrestha, M., Eriksson, S., Schurink, A., Andersson, L.S., Sundquist, M., Frey, R., Broström, H., Bergström, T., Ducro, B., Lindgren, G. :
Genome-Wide Association Study of Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in Swedish-Born Icelandic Horses. J Hered 106:366-74, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26026046. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esv033.
2014 Marti, E. :
Equine insect bite hypersensitivity: Are molecular diagnostic tests the future? Vet J , 2014. Pubmed reference: 24679455. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.02.017.
2013 Ginel, P.J., Hernández, E., Lucena, R., Blanco, B., Novales, M., Mozos, E. :
Allergen-specific immunotherapy in horses with insect bite hypersensitivity: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Vet Dermatol , 2013. Pubmed reference: 24267396. DOI: 10.1111/vde.12092.
Marsella, R. :
Equine allergy therapy: update on the treatment of environmental, insect bite hypersensitivity, and food allergies. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 29:551-7, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24267674. DOI: 10.1016/j.cveq.2013.08.006.
Schurink, A., Podesta, S.C., Ducro, B.J., van Arendonk, J.A., Frankena, K. :
Risk factors for insect bite hypersensitivity in Friesian horses and Shetland ponies in The Netherlands. Vet J 195:382-4, 2013. Pubmed reference: 22841449. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.06.037.
van der Meide, N.M., Savelkoul, H.F., Meulenbroeks, C., Ducro, B.J., Tijhaar, E. :
Evaluation of a diagnostic ELISA for insect bite hypersensitivity in horses using recombinant Obsoletus complex allergens. Vet J , 2013. Pubmed reference: 24703873. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.12.004.
Vychodilova, L., Matiasovic, J., Bobrova, O., Futas, J., Klumplerova, M., Stejskalova, K., Cvanova, M., Janova, E., Osickova, J., Vyskocil, M., Sedlinska, M., Dusek, L., Marti, E., Horin, P. :
Immunogenomic analysis of insect bite hypersensitivity in a model horse population. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 152:260-8, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23351640. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.12.013.
2012 Andersson, L.S., Swinburne, J.E., Meadows, J.R., Broström, H., Eriksson, S., Fikse, W.F., Frey, R., Sundquist, M., Tseng, C.T., Mikko, S., Lindgren, G. :
The same ELA class II risk factors confer equine insect bite hypersensitivity in two distinct populations. Immunogenetics 64:201-8, 2012. Pubmed reference: 21947540. DOI: 10.1007/s00251-011-0573-1.
Schaffartzik, A., Hamza, E., Janda, J., Crameri, R., Marti, E., Rhyner, C. :
Equine insect bite hypersensitivity: what do we know? Vet Immunol Immunopathol 147:113-26, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22575371. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.03.017.
Schurink, A., Wolc, A., Ducro, B.J., Frankena, K., Garrick, D.J., Dekkers, J.C., van Arendonk, J.A. :
Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in two horse populations in the Netherlands. Genet Sel Evol 44:31, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23110538. DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-44-31.
2011 Hamza, E., Steinbach, F., Marti, E. :
CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells expressing FoxP3 in Icelandic horses affected with insect bite hypersensitivity. Vet Immunol Immunopathol , 2011. Pubmed reference: 21700344. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2011.05.033.
Heimann, M., Janda, J., Sigurdardottir, O.G., Svansson, V., Klukowska, J., von Tscharner, C., Doherr, M., Broström, H., Andersson, L.S., Einarsson, S., Marti, E., Torsteinsdottir, S. :
Skin-infiltrating T cells and cytokine expression in Icelandic horses affected with insect bite hypersensitivity: a possible role for regulatory T cells. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 140:63-74, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21168921. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2010.11.016.
Peeters, L.M., Verlinden, T., Brebels, M., Buys, N., Janssens, S. :
Environmental factors affecting the prevalence of insect bite hypersensitivity in Belgian warmblood horses in Vlaanderen. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci 76:205-9, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21539232.
Schurink, A., Ducro, B.J., Heuven, H.C., van Arendonk, J.A. :
Genetic parameters of insect bite hypersensitivity in Dutch Friesian broodmares. J Anim Sci 89:1286-93, 2011. Pubmed reference: 21239662. DOI: 10.2527/jas.2010-3222.
2010 van den Boom, R., Driessen, F., Streumer, S.J., Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M. :
The effect of a supplement containing sunflower oil, vitamins, amino acids, and peptides on the severity of symptoms in horses suffering insect bite hypersensitivity. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 135:520-5, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20649138.
2009 Andersson, L.S., Högström, C., Mikko, S., Eriksson, S., Grandinson, K., Broström, H., Frey, R., Sundquist, M., Lindgren, G. :
Polymorphisms in SPINK5 do not associate with insect bite hypersensitivity in Icelandic horses born in Sweden. Anim Genet 40:790-1, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19397509. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2009.01890.x.
Hellberg, W., Mellor, P.S., Torsteinsdóttir, S., Marti, E. :
Insect bite hypersensitivity in the horse: comparison of IgE-binding proteins in salivary gland extracts from Simulium vittatum and Culicoides nubeculosus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 132:62-7, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19836841. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2009.09.016.
Schurink, A., van Grevenhof, E.M., Ducro, B.J., van Arendonk, J.A. :
Heritability and repeatability of insect bite hypersensitivity in Dutch Shetland breeding mares. J Anim Sci 87:484-90, 2009. Pubmed reference: 18791140. DOI: 10.2527/jas.2008-1129.
Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M., van Poppel, M., de Raat, I.J., van den Boom, R., Savelkoul, H.F. :
Intradermal testing of horses with and without insect bite hypersensitivity in The Netherlands using an extract of native Culicoides species. Vet Dermatol 20:607-14, 2009. Pubmed reference: 20178501. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2009.00832.x.
2008 Cunningham, FM., Dunkel, B. :
Equine recurrent airway obstruction and insect bite hypersensitivity: understanding the diseases and uncovering possible new therapeutic approaches. Vet J 177:334-44, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18023376. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.10.005.
de Raat, I.J., van den Boom, R., van Poppel, M., van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M. :
The effect of a topical insecticide containing permethrin on the number of Culicoides midges caught near horses with and without insect bite hypersensitivity in the Netherlands. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 133:838-42, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18975624.
Frey, R., Bergvall, K., Egenvall, A. :
Allergen-specific IgE in Icelandic horses with insect bite hypersensitivity and healthy controls, assessed by FcepsilonR1alpha-based serology. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 126:102-9, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18676025. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2008.06.010.
Hamza, E., Wagner, B., Jungi, T.W., Mirkovitch, J., Marti, E. :
Reduced incidence of insect-bite hypersensitivity in Icelandic horses is associated with a down-regulation of interleukin-4 by interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta1. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 122:65-75, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18082270. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2007.10.018.
van den Boom, R., Ducro, B., Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M. :
Identification of factors associated with the development of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses in The Netherlands. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 133:554-9, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18649782.
van der Rijt, R., van den Boom, R., Jongema, Y., van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M. :
Culicoides species attracted to horses with and without insect hypersensitivity. Vet J 178:91-7, 2008. Pubmed reference: 17728164. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.07.005.
2007 Mele, M., Gerber, V., Straub, R., Gaillard, C., Jallon, L., Burger, D. :
Erhebung der Prävalenz von Erbkrankheiten bei dreijährigen Pferden der Freiberger-Rasse. [Prevalence of hereditary diseases in three-year-old franches-montagnes horses] Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 149:151-159, 2007.
Mele, M., Gerber, V., Straub, R., Gaillard, C., Jallon, L., Burger, D. :
[Prevalence of hereditary diseases in three-year-old horses of the Freiberger breed]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 149:151-9, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17461390.
van Grevenhof, E.M., Ducro, B., Heuven, H.C., Bijma, P. :
Identification of environmental factors affecting the prevalence of insect bite hypersensitivity in Shetland ponies and Friesian horses in The Netherlands. Equine Vet J 39:69-73, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17228599.
2006 Baselgia, S., Doherr, M.G., Mellor, P., Torsteinsdottir, S., Jermann, T., Zurbriggen, A., Jungi, T., Marti, E. :
Evaluation of an in vitro sulphidoleukotriene release test for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses. Equine Vet J 38:40-6, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16411585.
Ferroglio, E., Pregel, P., Accossato, A., Taricco, I., Bollo, E., Rossi, L., Trisciuoglio, A. :
Equine Culicoides hypersensitivity: evaluation of a skin test and of humoral response. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 53:30-3, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16411906. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0442.2006.00783.x.
Hellberg, W., Wilson, A.D., Mellor, P., Doherr, M.G., Torsteinsdottir, S., Zurbriggen, A., Jungi, T., Marti, E. :
Equine insect bite hypersensitivity: immunoblot analysis of IgE and IgG subclass responses to Culicoides nubeculosus salivary gland extract. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 113:99-112, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16797724. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2006.04.009.
Wilson, A.D., Harwood, L., Torsteinsdottir, S., Marti, E. :
Production of monoclonal antibodies specific for native equine IgE and their application to monitor total serum IgE responses in Icelandic and non-Icelandic horses with insect bite dermal hypersensitivity. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 112:156-70, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16574245. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2006.02.003.
2001 van der Haegen, A., Griot-Wenk, M., Welle, M., Busato, A., von Tscharner, C., Zurbriggen, A., Marti, E. :
Immunoglobulin-E-bearing cells in skin biopsies of horses with insect bite hypersensitivity. Equine Vet J 33:699-706, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11770993.
Wilson, A.D., Harwood, L.J., Björnsdottir, S., Marti, E., Day, M.J. :
Detection of IgG and IgE serum antibodies to Culicoides salivary gland antigens in horses with insect dermal hypersensitivity (sweet itch). Equine Vet J 33:707-13, 2001. Pubmed reference: 11770994.
1999 Marti, E., Urwyler, A., Neuenschwander, M., Eicher, R., Meier, D., de Weck, A.L., Gerber, H., Lazary, S., Dahinden, C.A. :
Sulfidoleukotriene generation from peripheral blood leukocytes of horses affected with insect bite dermal hypersensitivity. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 71:307-20, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10587309.
McKelvie, J., Foster, A.P., Cunningham, F.M., Hamblin, A.S. :
Characterisation of lymphocyte subpopulations in the skin and circulation of horses with sweet itch (Culicoides hypersensitivity). Equine Vet J 31:466-72, 1999. Pubmed reference: 10596926.
1998 Foster, A.P., McKelvie, J., Cunningham, F.M. :
Inhibition of antigen-induced cutaneous responses of ponies with insect hypersensitivity by the histamine-1 receptor antagonist chlorpheniramine. Vet Rec 143:189-93, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9762759.
1993 Anderson, G.S., Belton, P., Kleider, N. :
Hypersensitivity of horses in British Columbia to extracts of native and exotic species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). J Med Entomol 30:657-63, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8360890.
1992 Marti, E., Gerber, H., Lazary, S. :
On the genetic basis of equine allergic diseases: II. Insect bite dermal hypersensitivity. Equine Vet J 24:113-7, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1582388.
1957 Ishihara, T., Ueno, H. :
Studies on summer mange ('Kasen' disease) of the horse in Japan. I. Genetical study on predisposition for summer mange Bulletin of the National Institute of Animal Health, Tokyo :179-197, 1957.
1955 Ishihara, T. :
Studies on summer mange: an opinion about allergic responses and hereditable constitution Journal of Japanese Veterinary Medical Association 8:366-371, 1955.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 04 Nov 2011
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