OMIA:001680-452646 : Coat colour, dominant white with bilateral deafness in Neovison vison (American mink)

In other species: taurine cattle

Categories: Pigmentation phene

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 103500 (trait) , 156845 (gene)

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2019

Markers: Markakis et al. (2017) reported that "Similar to other described species, in the American mink too, the MITF gene seems to be associated with lack of pigment and deafness, although no significant mutation has been identified in the gene".

Molecular basis: Manakhov et al. (2019) "identified single nucleotide variation (GL896899.1:18635719 G/A (MITF-M C.33 + 1 G > A), hereinafter referred to as MITF^h) at the splice donor site of the 1 M exon in melanocyte-specific MITF isoform (MITF-M) . . . [that] potentially leads to a stop codon after position 51 of the first MITF-M intron, resulting in a truncated 29 amino acid product, that contains only the first 11 amino acid of MITF-M. The mutation was homozygous in all tested Hedlund white minks from the two unrelated test populations, but not in minks with other coat colour phenotypes".

Clinical features: Markakis et al. (2017): "The skin of the newborn Hedlund kits is pale pink, but soon after birth is covered completely with white hair. The Hedlund phenotype in American mink appears to be controlled by a simple incompletely recessive locus and is associated with deafness in homozygotic status, similar to MITF variants in other species."

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
MITF Neovison vison 6 NC_058096.1 (187181995..186959808) MITF Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene


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WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
1205 Hedlund MITF h splicing Naturally occurring variant MusPutFur1.0.86 c.33+1G>A GL896899.1:18635719 G/A (MITF-M C.33 + 1 G > A (Manakhov et al., 2017) 2019 30872653

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2022). OMIA:001680-452646: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2022 Manakhov, A.D., Mintseva, M.Y., Uralsky, L.I., Andreeva, T.V., Trapezov, O.V., Rogaev, E.I. :
Identification of mutant gene for Black crystal coat and non-allelic gene interactions in Neogale vison. Sci Rep 12:10483, 2022. Pubmed reference: 35729186. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-14079-z.
2019 Manakhov, A.D., Andreeva, T.V., Trapezov, O.V., Kolchanov, N.A., Rogaev, E.I. :
Genome analysis identifies the mutant genes for common industrial Silverblue and Hedlund white coat colours in American mink. Sci Rep 9:4581, 2019. Pubmed reference: 30872653. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-40918-7.
2014 Markakis, M.N., Soedring, V.E., Dantzer, V., Christensen, K., Anistoroaei, R. :
Association of MITF gene with hearing and pigmentation phenotype in Hedlund white American mink (Neovison vison). J Genet 93:477-81, 2014. Pubmed reference: 25189243. DOI: 10.1007/s12041-014-0370-3.
1979 Flottorp, G., Foss, I. :
Development of hearing in hereditarily deaf white mink (Hedlund) and normal mink (standard) and the subsequent deterioration of the auditory response in Hedlund mink. Acta Otolaryngol 87:16-27, 1979. Pubmed reference: 760374.
1970 Sugiura, A. :
[Light and electron microscopic studies of the stria vascularis in Hedlund white mink with deafness]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho 73:Suppl:1080-1, 1970. Pubmed reference: 5466795.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 02 Jun 2020
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 02 Jun 2020
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 15 Nov 2022