OMIA:001893-9615 : Upper airway syndrome in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)

Categories: Respiratory system phene

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 605011 (gene)

Mendelian trait/disorder: unknown

Considered a defect: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2019

Species-specific name: upper airway obstructive syndrome; upper respiratory tract (URT) disorder

Species-specific symbol: UAS

Species-specific description: For upper airway obstructive syndrome in brachycephalic dog breeds see also: OMIA:000145-9615 : Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in Canis lupus familiaris

Mapping: By conducting a GWAS on 401 Norwich Terrier dogs, each genotyped with the CanineHD bead chip (yielding 105,130 informative SNPs), Marchant et al. (2019) mapped this disorder to a ~2.9Mb region "58,941,974–61,830,084 bp on canine chromosome (CFA) 13". Subsequent fine-mapping revealed a "413 kb haplotype spanning chr13:61,166,179–61,579,985 that is shared among most severely affected Norwich Terriers".

Molecular basis: Whole-genome sequencing within the fine-mapped region (see Mapping section) led Marchant et al. (2019) "to the discovery of a c.2786G>A missense variant in exon 20 of the positional candidate gene, ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 3 (ADAMTS3)" as a likely causal variant.

Clinical features: Norwich terriers with upper airway obstructive syndrome have normal nasal passages and nostrils. Affected dogs main anatomical abnormalities consisted of mildly elongated soft palates, additional dorsal pharyngeal tissue with elimination of piriform recesses, abnormal laryngeal mucosa, abnormal cuneiform and or corniculate processes, partially or full everted ventricles (saccules) and abnormal keyhole shape to the lower larynx. These changes manifest as respiratory signs of varying severities. Mildly affected dogs have owner reports of intermitted stridor (snoring) or stertor (wheezing). Dogs which are severely affected have been reported to experience severe respiratory distress, collapse and asphyxiation. (Johnson et al., 2013; Marchant et al., 2019) IT thanks DVM student Amy Garber, who provided the basis of this contribution in May 2023.

Prevalence: Marchant et al. (2019): "Over 1,300 dogs representing up to 114 diverse breeds including representatives of brachycephalic breeds diagnosed with BOAS [Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome] were screened for the c.2789G>A variant . . . . The disease allele frequency (AF) was observed in the Norwich Terrier (AF = 0.57, n = 401), Bulldog (AF = 0.85, n = 41), French Bulldog (AF = 0.12, n = 23), Staffordshire Bull Terrier (AF = 0.125, n = 8), German Spitz (Mittel) (AF = 0.06, n = 8) and Pomeranian (AF = 0.06, n = 8) suggesting the variant may influence BOAS in the French and English Bulldogs."

Breed: Norwich Terrier (Dog) (VBO_0200962).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. (If a likely causal variant has been documented for the phene, see the variant table breeds in which the variant has been reported).

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
ADAMTS3 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 3 Canis lupus familiaris 13 NC_051817.1 (62348334..62087170) ADAMTS3 Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene


By default, variants are sorted chronologically by year of publication, to provide a historical perspective. Readers can re-sort on any column by clicking on the column header. Click it again to sort in a descending order. To create a multiple-field sort, hold down Shift while clicking on the second, third etc relevant column headers.

WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
1084 Norwich Terrier (Dog) Upper airway syndrome ADAMTS3 missense Naturally occurring variant CanFam3.1 13 g.61287796G>A c.2786G>A p.(R929H) 2019 31095560

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2023). OMIA:001893-9615: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2023 Dimopoulou, M., Engdahl, K., Ladlow, J., Andersson, G., Hedhammar, Å., Skiöldebrand, E., Ljungvall, I. :
The epidemiology of upper respiratory tract disorders in a population of insured Swedish dogs (2011-2014), and its association to brachycephaly. Sci Rep 13:8765, 2023. Pubmed reference: 37253809. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-35466-0.
2021 Johnson, L.R., Mayhew, P.D., Culp, W.T.N., Stanley, B.J. :
Results of owner questionnaires describing long-term outcome in Norwich terriers with upper airway syndrome: 2011-2018. J Vet Intern Med 35:1950-1956, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34076315. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.16180.
2019 Marchant, T.W., Dietschi, E., Rytz, U., Schawalder, P., Jagannathan, V., Hadji Rasouliha, S., Gurtner, C., Waldvogel, A.S., Harrington, R.S., Drögemüller, M., Kidd, J., Ostrander, E.A., Warr, A., Watson, M., Argyle, D., Ter Haar, G., Clements, D.N., Leeb, T., Schoenebeck, J.J. :
An ADAMTS3 missense variant is associated with Norwich Terrier upper airway syndrome. PLoS Genet 15:e1008102, 2019. Pubmed reference: 31095560. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1008102.
2013 Johnson, L.R., Mayhew, P.D., Steffey, M.A., Hunt, G.B., Carr, A.H., McKiernan, B.C. :
Upper airway obstruction in Norwich Terriers: 16 cases. J Vet Intern Med 27:1409-15, 2013. Pubmed reference: 24112556. DOI: 10.1111/jvim.12206.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 26 Nov 2013
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 28 May 2019
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 03 Jun 2019
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 16 Apr 2021
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 27 May 2023
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 01 Jun 2023