OMIA:002020-9615 : Ligneous membranitis in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)

Categories: Vision / eye phene

Links to possible relevant human trait(s) and/or gene(s) in OMIM: 217090 (trait) , 173350 (gene)

Mendelian trait/disorder: yes

Mode of inheritance: Autosomal recessive

Considered a defect: yes

Key variant known: yes

Year key variant first reported: 2015

Cross-species summary: Also known as Plasminogen deficiency and Ligneous conjunctivitis

Species-specific description: Ainsworth et al. (2015) "Ligneous membranitis (LM) is a rare chronic inflammatory condition of the mucous membranes associated with plasminogen (encoded by PLG) deficiency in affected humans and dogs. ... We identified related Scottish Terriers (littermates) with severe LM and unaffected relatives (sire, dam and a sibling from a previous litter). ... Sequencing of PLG from the affected dogs revealed a homozygous A>T single nucleotide polymorphism in an intron donor site (c.1256+2T>A)." Turba et al. (2021): "LM was diagnosed in a 7-month-old male Maltese dog. The dog was examined for severe recurrent conjunctivitis. A diagnosis of ligneous conjunctivitis was made by an ophthalmologist after a thorough eye examination and was confirmed by a complete lack of plasma activity of plasminogen. The main local signs were redness of the conjunctiva with persistent membranes having ligneous (wood-like) membranes on the eyes. The disease was associated with a complex rearrangement involving the plasminogen gene loci, causing the complete deletion of exon 1."

Molecular basis: Ainsworth et al. (2015): an A>T SNP in an intron donor site (c.1256+2T>A) Turba et al. (2021): a deletion of 5986 bp involving exon 1 and the flanking region

Breeds: Doberman Pinscher (Dog) (VBO_0200442), Golden Retriever (Dog) (VBO_0200610), Maltese (Dog) (VBO_0200856), Scottish Terrier (Dog) (VBO_0201198), Yorkshire Terrier (Dog) (VBO_0201448).
Breeds in which the phene has been documented. (If a likely causal variant has been documented for the phene, see the variant table breeds in which the variant has been reported).

Associated gene:

Symbol Description Species Chr Location OMIA gene details page Other Links
PLG plasminogen Canis lupus familiaris 1 NC_051805.1 (49720525..49682496) PLG Homologene, Ensembl , NCBI gene


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WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.

Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.

OMIA Variant ID Breed(s) Variant Phenotype Gene Allele Type of Variant Source of Genetic Variant Reference Sequence Chr. g. or m. c. or n. p. Verbal Description EVA ID Year Published PubMed ID(s) Acknowledgements
412 Scottish Terrier (Dog) Ligneous membranitis PLG splicing Naturally occurring variant 1 c.1256+2T>A possibly NM_001286960.1 c.1262+2T>A; CanFam3.1 g.49514382A>T 2015 26360520
1338 Maltese (Dog) Ligneous membranitis PLG deletion, gross (>20) Naturally occurring variant CanFam3.1 1 g.49534880_49540865del c.-5645_49+292del XM_005615560.1; a deletion of 5986 bp involving exon 1 and the flanking region 2021 34370320

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2023). OMIA:002020-9615: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2021 Genetics Committee of the American College of Veterinary Opthalmologists :
The Blue Book: Ocular disorders presumed to be inherited in purebred dogs. 13th Edition , 2021.
Turba, M.E., Ostan, P.C., Ghetti, S., Dajbychova, M., Dondi, F., Gentilini, F. :
A large deletion in the plasminogen gene is associated with ligneous membranitis in a Maltese dog. Anim Genet 52:767-71, 2021. Pubmed reference: 34370320. DOI: 10.1111/age.13130.
2016 Mason, S.L., Fisher, C., Ressel, L., Bommer, N.X., Buckley, L.M., Nuttall, T. :
Presentation, clinical pathological and post-mortem findings in three related Scottish terriers with ligneous membranitis. J Small Anim Pract 57:271-276, 2016. Pubmed reference: 26840763. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12443.
Moyer, M.A., Scott, K., Cianciolo, R.E. :
Features and outcome of a glomerulonephropathy associated with ligneous conjunctivitis in a Doberman pinscher dog. Can Vet J 57:501-6, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27152037.
2015 Ainsworth, S., Carter, S., Fisher, C., Dawson, J., Makrides, L., Nuttall, T., Mason, S.L. :
Ligneous membranitis in Scottish Terriers is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism in the plasminogen (PLG) gene. Anim Genet 46:707-10, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26360520. DOI: 10.1111/age.12339.
2012 Mason, S.L., McElroy, P., Nuttall, T. :
Genetics of ligneous membranitis in a family of Scottish terriers. J Small Anim Pract 53:668, 2012. Pubmed reference: 23898908. DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2012.01309.x.
Mason, S.L., McElroy, P., Nuttall, T. :
Ligneous membranitis in Scottish terriers. Vet Rec 171:160, 2012. Pubmed reference: 22890402. DOI: 10.1136/vr.e5382.
2009 Torres, M.D., Leiva, M., Tabar, M.D., Naranjo, C., Pastor, J., Peña, T. :
Ligneous conjunctivitis in a plasminogen-deficient dog: clinical management and 2-year follow-up. Vet Ophthalmol 12:248-53, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19604341. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-5224.2009.00700.x.
2008 McLean, N.S., Ward, D.A., Hendrix, D.V., Donnell, R.L., Ilha, M.R. :
Ligneous conjunctivitis secondary to a congenital plasminogen deficiency in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 232:715-21, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18312178. DOI: 10.2460/javma.232.5.715.
1998 Neuman, A.C., Bakke, M.H., Mackersie, C., Hellman, S., Levitt, H. :
The effect of compression ratio and release time on the categorical rating of sound quality. J Acoust Soc Am 103:2273-81, 1998. Pubmed reference: 9604341.
1996 Ramsey, D.T., Ketring, K.L., Glaze, M.B., Knight, B., Render, J.A. :
Ligneous conjunctivitis in four Doberman pinschers. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 32:439-47, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8875361. DOI: 10.5326/15473317-32-5-439.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 01 Aug 2016
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 01 Aug 2016
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 13 Aug 2021
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 17 Jun 2023