OMIA:000168-9615 : Cataract, generic in Canis lupus familiaris (dog)

In other species: chicken , grivet , crab-eating macaque , giant panda , domestic ferret , domestic cat , lion , ass (donkey) , horse , taurine cattle , sheep , rabbit , domestic guinea pig , degu , bald eagle , green monkey

Categories: Vision / eye phene

Mendelian trait/disorder: unknown

Considered a defect: yes

Cross-species summary: Opacity of the lens of the eye.

Species-specific description: Forms of inherited cataract for which the genetic causes have been identified have been been described, for examples see 'OMIA:001758-9615 : Cataract, early onset, HSF4-related' and OMIA:002536-9615 : Cataract, FYCO1-related

Mapping: Müller and Distl (2008) genotyped 39 microsatellites flanking 31 candidate genes in 10 families of Entlebucher mountain dogs that had been phenotyped for primary non-congenital cataracts. Having thus highlighted a region on chromosome CFA1, these same authors then fine-mapped this region to 1.4Mb peaking at 96.07Mb, via an additional 30 microsatellites. Sequencing two candidate genes in this region did not reveal any causal mutation.

Cite this entry

Nicholas, F. W., Tammen, I., & Sydney Informatics Hub. (2024). OMIA:000168-9615: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA) [dataset].


Note: the references are listed in reverse chronological order (from the most recent year to the earliest year), and alphabetically by first author within a year.

2024 Rajaei, S.M., Faghihi, H., Zahirinia, F. :
The Shih Tzu eye: Ophthalmic findings of 1000 eyes. Vet Ophthalmol , 2024. Pubmed reference: 38169085. DOI: 10.1111/vop.13182.
2022 Gilger, B.C. :
How study of naturally occurring ocular disease in animals improves ocular health globally. J Am Vet Med Assoc 260:1887-1893, 2022. Pubmed reference: 36198052. DOI: 10.2460/javma.22.08.0383.
2021 Genetics Committee of the American College of Veterinary Opthalmologists :
The Blue Book: Ocular disorders presumed to be inherited in purebred dogs. 13th Edition , 2021.
2018 Fischer, M.C., Meyer-Lindenberg, A. :
Progression and complications of canine cataracts for different stages of development and aetiologies. J Small Anim Pract , 2018. Pubmed reference: 30132899. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12910.
2017 Guandalini, A., Di Girolamo, N., Corvi, R., Santillo, D., Andreani, V., Pinzo, B. :
Epidemiology of ocular disorders presumed to be inherited in three small Italian dog breeds in Italy. Vet Ophthalmol 21:524-529, 2017. Pubmed reference: 29284193. DOI: 10.1111/vop.12542.
2016 Donzel, E., Arti, L., Chahory, S. :
Epidemiology and clinical presentation of canine cataracts in France: a retrospective study of 404 cases. Vet Ophthalmol 20:131-139, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27061240. DOI: 10.1111/vop.12380.
Guandalini, A., Di Girolamo, N., Santillo, D., Andreani, V., Corvi, R., Bandini, M., Peruccio, C. :
Epidemiology of ocular disorders presumed to be inherited in three large Italian dog breeds in Italy. Vet Ophthalmol 20:420-426, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27860098. DOI: 10.1111/vop.12442.
Madany, J. :
Serum malondialdehyde level and activity of total antioxidant status of dogs with age-related cataract. Pol J Vet Sci 19:429-31, 2016. Pubmed reference: 27487520. DOI: 10.1515/pjvs-2016-0054.
2015 Krecny, M., Tichy, A., Rushton, J., Nell, B. :
A retrospective survey of ocular abnormalities in pugs: 130 cases. J Small Anim Pract 56:96-102, 2015. Pubmed reference: 25370448. DOI: 10.1111/jsap.12291.
Oberbauer, A.M., Belanger, J.M., Bellumori, T., Bannasch, D.L., Famula, T.R. :
Ten inherited disorders in purebred dogs by functional breed groupings. Canine Genet Epidemiol 2:9, 2015. Pubmed reference: 26401337. DOI: 10.1186/s40575-015-0021-x.
2014 Pfahler, S., Menzel, J., Brahm, R., Rosenhagen, C.U., Hafemeister, B., Schmidt, U., Sinzinger, W., Distl, O. :
Prevalence and formation of primary cataracts and persistent hyperplastic tunica vasculosa lentis in the German Pinscher population in Germany. Vet Ophthalmol 18:135-40, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24674602. DOI: 10.1111/vop.12167.
Renzo, R., Ribeiro, A.P., da Silva, M.L., da Silva, G.A., Ortencio, K.P., Barros Sobrinho, A.A., Wilson Patriarca Mineo, T., Laus, J.L. :
Intraocular pressure, specular microscopy, and prostaglandin E2 concentration in dogs with mature and hypermature cataract. Vet Ophthalmol 17:280-5, 2014. Pubmed reference: 24450881. DOI: 10.1111/vop.12144.
2013 Bellumori, T.P., Famula, T.R., Bannasch, D.L., Belanger, J.M., Oberbauer, A.M. :
Prevalence of inherited disorders among mixed-breed and purebred dogs: 27,254 cases (1995-2010). J Am Vet Med Assoc 242:1549-55, 2013. Pubmed reference: 23683021. DOI: 10.2460/javma.242.11.1549.
Raghuvanshi, P.D.S., Maiti, S.K. :
Canine cataracts and its management: An overview. Journal of Animal Research 3:17-26, 2013.
2010 Urfer, SR., Greer, K., Wolf, NS. :
Age-related cataract in dogs: a biomarker for life span and its relation to body size. Age (Dordr) 33:451-60, 2010. Pubmed reference: 20607428. DOI: 10.1007/s11357-010-9158-4.
2009 Baumworcel, N., Soares, AM., Helms, G., Rei, PR., Castro, MC. :
Three hundred and three dogs with cataracts seen in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Vet Ophthalmol 12:299-301, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19751489. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-5224.2009.00715.x.
Mellersh, CS., Mclaughlin, B., Ahonen, S., Pettitt, L., Lohi, H., Barnett, KC. :
Mutation in HSF4 is associated with hereditary cataract in the Australian Shepherd. Vet Ophthalmol 12:372-8, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19883468. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-5224.2009.00735.x.
Muller, C., Distl, O. :
Scanning 17 candidate genes for association with primary cataracts in the wire-haired Dachshund. Vet J 182:342-345, 2009. Pubmed reference: 18703362. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.06.006.
Park, SA., Yi, NY., Jeong, MB., Kim, WT., Kim, SE., Chae, JM., Seo, KM. :
Clinical manifestations of cataracts in small breed dogs. Vet Ophthalmol 12:205-10, 2009. Pubmed reference: 19604334. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-5224.2009.00697.x.
2008 Engelhardt, A., Stock, KF., Hamann, H., Brahm, R., Grussendorf, H., Rosenhagen, CU., Distl, O. :
A retrospective study on the prevalence of primary cataracts in two pedigrees from the German population of English Cocker Spaniels. Vet Ophthalmol 11:215-21, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18638346. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-5224.2008.00628.x.
Gentilini, F., Rovesti, GL., Turba, ME. :
Known insertion/deletion mutations in exon 9 of heat shock transcription factor 4 are not responsible for juvenile hereditary cataract in Siberian Husky dogs. Anim Genet 39:575-6, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18680491. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2008.01766.x.
Müller, C., Distl, O. :
Linkage and association analyses of intragenic SNPs in the canine beta-crystallin genes CRYBB1, CRYBB2, CRYBB3, CRYBA1 and CRYBA4 with primary cataracts in wire-haired Dachshunds. Anim Genet 39:87-8, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18162101. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2007.01680.x.
Müller, C., Distl, O. :
Association study of candidate genes for primary cataracts and fine-mapping of a candidate region on dog chromosome 1 in Entlebucher mountain dogs. Mol Vis 14:883-8, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18490961.
Müller, C., Wöhlke, A., Distl, O. :
Evaluation of canine heat shock transcription factor 4 (HSF4) as a candidate gene for primary cataracts in the Dachshund and the Entlebucher Mountain dog. Vet Ophthalmol 11:34-7, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18190350. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-5224.2007.00598.x.
Oberbauer, AM., Hollingsworth, SR., Belanger, JM., Regan, KR., Famula, TR. :
Inheritance of cataracts and primary lens luxation in Jack Russell Terriers. Am J Vet Res 69:222-7, 2008. Pubmed reference: 18241019. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.69.2.222.
2007 Engelhardt, A., Wöhlke, A., Distl, O. :
Evaluation of canine heat-shock transcription factor 4 as a candidate for primary cataracts in English Cocker Spaniels and wire-haired Kromfohrlanders. J Anim Breed Genet 124:242-5, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17651328. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0388.2007.00663.x.
Engelhardt, A., Stock, KF., Hamann, H., Brahm, R., Grussendorf, H., Rosenhagen, CU., Distl, O. :
Analysis of systematic and genetic effects on the prevalence of primary cataract, persistent pupillary membrane and distichiasis in the two color variants of English Cocker Spaniels in Germany. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 120:490-8, 2007. Pubmed reference: 18085160.
Mellersh, CS., Graves, KT., Mclaughlin, B., Ennis, RB., Pettitt, L., Vaudin, M., Barnett, KC. :
Mutation in HSF4 associated with early but not late-onset hereditary cataract in the Boston Terrier. J Hered 98:531-3, 2007. Pubmed reference: 17611257. DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esm043.
2006 Heinrich, CL., Lakhani, KH., Featherstone, HJ., Barnett, KC. :
Cataract in the UK Leonberger population. Vet Ophthalmol 9:350-6, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16939464. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-5224.2006.00460.x.
Hunter, LS., Sidjanin, DJ., Johnson, JL., Zangerl, B., Galibert, F., Andre, C., Kirkness, E., Talamas, E., Acland, GM., Aguirre, GD. :
Radiation hybrid mapping of cataract genes in the dog. Mol Vis 12:588-96, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16760895.
2005 Gelatt, KN., Mackay, EO. :
Prevalence of primary breed-related cataracts in the dog in North America. Vet Ophthalmol 8:101-11, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15762923. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-5224.2005.00352.x.
Sidjanin, DJ., McElwee, J., Miller, B., Aguirre, GD. :
Cloning of canine galactokinase (GALK1) and evaluation as a candidate gene for hereditary cataracts in Labrador retrievers. Anim Genet 36:265-6, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15932415. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2052.2005.01275.x.
Wallace, MR., Mackay, EO., Gelatt, KN., Andrew, SE. :
Inheritance of cataract in the Bichon Frise. Vet Ophthalmol 8:203-5, 2005. Pubmed reference: 15910375. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-5224.2005.00359.x.
2004 Ketteritzsch, K., Hamann, H., Brahm, R., Grussendorf, H., Rosenhagen, CU., Distl, O. :
Genetic analysis of presumed inherited eye diseases in Tibetan Terriers. Vet J 168:151-9, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15301758. DOI: 10.1016/S1090-0233(03)00143-6.
Ketteritzsch, K., Hamann, H., Brahm, R., Grussendorf, H., Rosenhagen, C.U., Distl, O. :
Genetic analysis of presumed inherited eye diseases in Tibetan Terriers. Vet J 168:151-9, 2004. Pubmed reference: 15301763. DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2003.08.005.
Williams, DL., Heath, MF., Wallis, C. :
Prevalence of canine cataract: preliminary results of a cross-sectional study. Vet Ophthalmol 7:29-35, 2004. Pubmed reference: 14738504.
2003 Gelatt, K.N., Wallace, M.R., Andrew, S.E., MacKay, E.O., Samuelson, D.A. :
Cataracts in the Bichon Frise Veterinary Ophthalmology 6:3-9, 2003. Pubmed reference: 12641835.
2002 Madany, J. :
Cataracts in adult dogs in clinical examinations Medycyna Weterynaryjna 58:680-684, 2002.
2000 Kmoch, S., Brynda, J., Asfaw, B., Bezouska, K., Novák, P., Rezácová, P., Ondrová, L., Filipec, M., Sedlácek, J., Elleder, M. :
Link between a novel human gammaD-crystallin allele and a unique cataract phenotype explained by protein crystallography. Hum Mol Genet 9:1779-86, 2000. Pubmed reference: 10915766.
Ori, J.I., Yoshikai, T., Yoshimur, S., Ujino, H., Takase, K. :
Posterior lenticonus with congenital cataract in a Shih Tzu dog. J Vet Med Sci 62:1201-3, 2000. Pubmed reference: 11129866. DOI: 10.1292/jvms.62.1201.
1997 Lohmann, B., Klesen, S. :
Cataract and microphthalmia in a litter of Russian Terriers [German] Praktische Tierarzt 78:981 ff., 1997.
1996 Williams, D.L., Boydell, I.P., Long, R.D. :
Current concepts in the management of canine cataract - a survey of techniques used by surgeons in Britain, Europe and the USA and a review of recent literature Veterinary Record 138:347-353, 1996. Pubmed reference: 8737260.
1995 Bjerkas, E., Haaland, M.B. :
Pulverulent nuclear cataract in the Norwegian buhund Journal of Small Animal Practice 36:471-474, 1995. Pubmed reference: 8587319.
1994 Shastry, B.S., Reddy, V.N. :
Studies on congenital hereditary cataract and microphthalmia of the miniature Schnauzer dog Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 203:1663-1667, 1994. Pubmed reference: 7945315. DOI: 10.1006/bbrc.1994.2377.
Spiess, B.M. :
[Inherited Ocular Diseases in the Entlebucher Mountain Dog] Schweizer Archiv Fur Tierheilkunde 136:105-110, 1994. Pubmed reference: 8171308.
1993 Vanderwoerdt, A., Wilkie, D.A., Myer, C.W. :
Ultrasonographic Abnormalities in the Eyes of Dogs with Cataracts - 147 Cases (1986-1992) Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 203:838-841, 1993. Pubmed reference: 8226239.
1992 Collins, B.K., Collier, L.L., Johnson, G.S., Shibuya, H., Moore, C.P., Curiel, J.M.A.D. :
Familial Cataracts and Concurrent Ocular Anomalies in Chow Chows Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 200:1485-1491, 1992. Pubmed reference: 1612983.
1991 Zhang, R.L., Samuelson, D.A., Zhang, Z.G., Reddy, V.N., Shastry, B.S. :
Analysis of Eye Lens-Specific Genes in Congenital Hereditary Cataracts and Microphthalmia of the Miniature Schnauzer Dog Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 32:2662-2665, 1991. Pubmed reference: 1869417.
1989 Curtis, R., Barnett, K.C. :
A survey of cataracts in Golden and Labrador Retrievers Journal of Small Animal Practice 30:277-286, 1989.
1988 Davidson, MG. :
Congenital cataracts in English cocker spaniels. Vet Rec 122:568, 1988. Pubmed reference: 3413933.
Davidson, MG. :
Congenital cataracts in English cocker spaniels. Vet Rec 122:494, 1988. Pubmed reference: 3420773.
1985 Barnett, KC., Startup, FG. :
Hereditary cataract in the standard poodle. Vet Rec 117:15-6, 1985. Pubmed reference: 4024442.
1984 Curtis, R. :
Late-onset cataract in the Boston terrier. Vet Rec 115:577-8, 1984. Pubmed reference: 6523684. DOI: 10.1136/vr.115.22.577.
Gelatt, KN., Das, ND. :
Animal models for inherited cataracts: a review. Curr Eye Res 3:765-78, 1984. Pubmed reference: 6734258. DOI: 10.3109/02713688409065600.
1983 Gelatt, KN., Samuelson, DA., Bauer, JE., Das, ND., Wolf, ED., Barrie, KP., Andresen, TL. :
Inheritance of congenital cataracts and microphthalmia in the Miniature Schnauzer. Am J Vet Res 44:1130-2, 1983. Pubmed reference: 6870020.
Gelatt, KN., Samuelson, DA., Barrie, KP., Das, ND., Wolf, ED., Bauer, JE., Andresen, TL. :
Biometry and clinical characteristics of congenital cataracts and microphthalmia in the Miniature Schnauzer. J Am Vet Med Assoc 183:99-102, 1983. Pubmed reference: 6874532.
1981 Narfstrom, K. :
Cataract in the West Highland White terrier Journal of Small Animal Practice 22:467-471, 1981. Pubmed reference: 7289590.
1980 Barnett, KC. :
Hereditary cataract in the Welsh Springer spaniel. J Small Anim Pract 21:621-5, 1980. Pubmed reference: 7230748.
1979 Gelatt, K.N., Whitley, R.D., Lavach, J.D., Barrie, K.P., Williams, L.W. :
Cataracts in Chesapeake Bay Retrievers Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 175:1176-1178, 1979. Pubmed reference: 511742.
1977 Buskirk, R. van :
The lens epithelium of American Cocker Spaniels with inherited and non inherited lens cataracts Research in Veterinary Science 22:237-242, 1977. Pubmed reference: 860096.
1974 Olesen, H.P., Jensen, O.A., Norn, M.S. :
Congenital hereditary cataract in Cocker Spaniels Journal of Small Animal Practice 15:741-750, 1974. Pubmed reference: 4449208.
Rubin, L.F. :
Cataract in Golden Retrievers Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 165:457-458, 1974. Pubmed reference: 4423543.
1973 Roberts, SR. :
Hereditary cataracts. Vet Clin North Am 3:433-7, 1973. Pubmed reference: 4801921.
1972 Gelatt, K.N. :
Cataracts in the Golden Retriever dog Veterinary Medicine and Small Animal Clinician 67:1113-1115, 1972. Pubmed reference: 4484576.
Koch, S.A. :
Cataracts in interrelated Old English Sheepdogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 160:299-301, 1972. Pubmed reference: 5061880.
Koch, S.A. :
Cataracts in Old English Sheepdogs. A preliminary report Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 8:61-63, 1972.
Roberts, S.R., Helper, L.C. :
Cataracts in Afghan Hounds Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 160:427-432, 1972. Pubmed reference: 5014602.
Rubin, L.F., Flowers, R.D. :
Inherited cataract in a family of Standard Poodles Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 161:207-208, 1972. Pubmed reference: 5036188.
1971 Heywood, R. :
Juvenile cataracts in the Beagle dog Journal of Small Animal Practice 12:171-177, 1971. Pubmed reference: 5551929.
1969 Rubin, L.F., Koch, S.A., Huber, R.J. :
Hereditary cataracts in Miniature Schnauzers Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 154:1456-1458, 1969. Pubmed reference: 5392449.
1967 Koch, S.A., Rubin, L.F. :
Probably nonhereditary congenital cataracts in dogs Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 150:1374-1376, 1967. Pubmed reference: 6067611.
1961 D'Ombrain, A. :
Canine cataract. Med J Aust 48(1):906, 1961. Pubmed reference: 13719229.
1936 Host, P., Sreinson, S. :
Hereditary cataract in the dog Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift 48:244-270, 1936.

Edit History

  • Created by Frank Nicholas on 04 Nov 2010
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 26 Sep 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 12 Dec 2011
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 05 Dec 2012
  • Changed by Frank Nicholas on 21 May 2013
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 17 Jun 2023
  • Changed by Imke Tammen2 on 22 May 2024