OMIA:001199-37349 : Coat colour, extension in Mammuthus primigenius (woolly mammoth)
In other species: lorises , coyote , dog , red fox , American black bear , domestic cat , jaguar , ass (donkey) , horse , Przewalski's horse , pig , Arabian camel , reindeer , taurine cattle , indicine cattle (zebu) , goat , sheep , rabbit , Mongolian gerbil , domestic guinea pig , domestic yak , fallow deer , alpaca , gray squirrel , raccoon dog , antarctic fur seal , rock pocket mouse , oldfield mouse , lesser earless lizard , Geoffroy's cat , jaguarundi , Colocolo , little striped whiptail , water buffalo , Arctic fox
Categories: Pigmentation phene
Links to MONDO diseases: No links.
Mendelian trait/disorder: yes
Considered a defect: no
Key variant known: yes
Year key variant first reported: 2006
Cross-species summary: The extension locus encodes the melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MSHR; now known as MC1R). This receptor controls the level of tyrosinase within melanocytes. Tyrosinase is the limiting enzyme involved in synthesis of melanins: high levels of tyrosinase result in the production of eumelanin (dark colour, e.g. brown or black), while low levels result in the production of phaeomelanin (light colour, e.g. red or yellow). When melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) binds to its receptor, the level of tyrosinase is increased, leading to production of eumelanin. The wild-type allele at the extension locus corresponds to a functional MSHR, and hence to dark pigmentation in the presence of MSH. As explained by Schneider et al. (PLoS Genet 10(2): e1004892; 2015), "The most common causes of melanism (black coat) mutations are gain-of-function alterations in MC1R, or loss-of function alterations in ASIP, which encodes Agouti signaling protein, a paracrine signaling molecule that inhibits MC1R signaling". Mutations in MC1R have been associated with white colouring in several species.
History: Interestingly, an MC1R polymorpophism at position 301 has also been discovered in ancient and present-day dogs (see OMIA 001199-9615)
Molecular basis: By sequencing the MC1R gene from bone of a 43,000-year-old woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) from Siberia, Rompler et al. (2006) discovered that the individual was heterozygous at three sites within the MC!R gene, namely Thr21Ala, Arg67Cys, and Arg301Ser. The authors reported that "Functional testing of each position variable in the mammoth individually and all possible combinations of the three mammoth-specific amino acids revealed the Arg67Cys substitution as the main cause for MC1R dysfunction . . . the reduction in activity of the Arg67Cys variant would be sufficient to result in substantially lighter hair color". The authors concluded that "it is possible that mammoth populations were polymorphic with regard to hair color, harboring both dark- and light-haired individuals."
Have human generated variants been created, e.g. through genetic engineering and gene editing
|Symbol||Description||Species||Chr||Location||OMIA gene details page||Other Links|
|MC1R||Mammuthus primigenius||-||no genomic information (-..-)||MC1R||Ensembl|
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WARNING! Inclusion of a variant in this table does not automatically mean that it should be used for DNA testing. Anyone contemplating the use of any of these variants for DNA testing should examine critically the relevant evidence (especially in breeds other than the breed in which the variant was first described). If it is decided to proceed, the location and orientation of the variant sequence should be checked very carefully.
Since October 2021, OMIA includes a semiautomated lift-over pipeline to facilitate updates of genomic positions to a recent reference genome position. These changes to genomic positions are not always reflected in the ‘acknowledgements’ or ‘verbal description’ fields in this table.
|OMIA Variant ID||Breed(s)||Variant Phenotype||Gene||Allele||Type of Variant||Source of Genetic Variant||Reference Sequence||Chr.||g. or m.||c. or n.||p.||Verbal Description||EVA ID||Inferred EVA rsID||Year Published||PubMed ID(s)||Acknowledgements|
|1173||Light hair colour||MC1R||missense||Naturally occurring variant||p.(R67C)||2006||16825562|
Cite this entry
|2006||Rompler, H., Rohland, N., Lalueza-Fox, C., Willerslev, E., Kuznetsova, T., Rabeder, G., Bertranpetit, J., Schoneberg, T., Hofreiter, M. :|
|Nuclear gene indicates coat-color polymorphism in mammoths. Science 313:62, 2006. Pubmed reference: 16825562. DOI: 10.1126/science.1128994.|
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